Nervous & Reproductive System

The Nervous System


Responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

Central and Peripheral systems

Central: Processing center for the nervous system. It receives information from and sends information to the peripheral nervous system.

Parts: Brain and Spinal Cord

Peripheral: Cells of the sensory nervous system send information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli. Motor nervous system cells carry information from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands.

Parts: All peripheral nerves (Sensory and Motor)

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Cerebral hemispheres- Each of the two parts of the cerebrum (left and right) in the brain of a vertebrate.

Diencephalon- The posterior part of the forebrain, consisting of the hypothalamus, thalamus, metathalamus, and epithalamus; the subthalamus is often recognized as a distinct division.

Brain stem- regulation of heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.

Cerebellum- receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. And coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth, balanced muscular activity.


Parkinson's Disease: A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors.

- Difficulty walking, stiff muscles, slow shuffling gait, muscle rigidity, involuntary movements, problems with coordination, difficulty standing, muscle twitch, difficulty with bodily movement, or slow bodily movement.

- 60,000 every year

- Tolcapone (Tasmar), Selegiline (Eldepryl), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Rotigotine through the skin, Rasagiline (Azilect), Pramipexole (Mirapex), Benzatropine, Entacapone (Comtan), Ropinirole (Requip), Carbidopa​/​levodopa (Parcopa), Cabergoline, Bromocriptine (Parlodel ) & Excercise

Blood Flow Disruption: Disruption in the flow of blood through veins, capillaries, and arteries.

  • sudden onset
  • several minutes' duration
  • vertigo
  • nausea and vomitting
  • visual field defects
  • diplopia
  • headaches
  • 20,000 every year
  • dialysis

The Reproductive System


Collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life.

Process of Spermatogenesis

The male testes have tiny tubules containing diploid cells called spermatogonium that mature to become sperm. The basic function of spermatogenesis is to turn each one of the diploid spermatogonium into four haploid sperm cells. This quadrupling is accomplished through the meiotic cell division detailed in the last section. During interphase before meiosis I, the spermatogonium’s 46 single chromosomes are replicated to form 46 pairs of sister chromatids, which then exchange genetic material through synapsis before the first meiotic division. In meiosis II, the two daughter cells go through a second division to yield four cells containing a unique set of 23 single chromosomes that ultimately mature into four sperm cells. Starting at puberty, a male will produce literally millions of sperm every single day for the rest of his life.

Process of Oogenesis / Why there is an unequal division of cytoplasm

During oogenesis, the cytoplasm is unevenly divided during each meiotic division. This results in one egg and three polar bodies. It does this because egg cells must contain enough supplies to synthesize all the products needed by the developing embryo implants into the uterine wall, which does not occur until 7-10 days after fertilization.


Endometriosis: A disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.

-Pain in the lower abdomen, vagina, rectum, pelvis, or lower back, can occur while defecating or during sexual intercourse, can be sharp, severe or mild.

-more than 10 mil in the us

-medication prescribed for how severe it is

Infertile: Unable to produce eggs and get pregnant

-pain in uterus, miss carriages

-20% of women in us

-medication or surgery