Influenza

By Charlotte Heuschkel

Causes:

  • The virus is what causes the symptoms itself
  • Types A, B and C
  • A and B- seasonal outbreaks
  • A: found in many animals, horse, ducks pigs, and chickens
  • B: Humans only
  • Primarily airborne: coughing, sneezing, etc.

Structure of the Virus:

  • Spherical
  • Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidaise (NA) are glycoproteins (the mushroom and rod shapes coming out of the virus)
  • Lipid membrane protecting the inside of the virus
  • M1 and M2 proteins
  • Ribonucleoprotein (RNP)
  1. RNA
  2. Nucleoprotein
  3. Polymerase

Haemagglutinin (HA) & Neuraminidase (NA): Structure of the Virus

Haemagglutinin:
  • Single polypeptide chain
  • Approx. 560 amino acid residues
  • Binds the virus to the surface of a cell


Neuraminidase:
  • Has enzymatic activity
  • Releases the new virus particles to the effected cells
  • Drugs made for the flu target this because it slows down the spreading of the virus
Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body

Symptoms:

  • A fever/chills
  • Cough and sore throat
  • Stuffy/runny nose
  • Headaches
  • Body aches
  • Fatigue

Treatment:

  • Antibiotics
  • Over-the-counter medications to relieve symptoms
  • Rest
  • Drink fluids
  • Cough drops/medicine for sore throat
  • Cool damp washcloth for fever
  • Fever/inflammation reducers

Prevention:

  • Wash your hands
  • Stay away from sick people/from people when you're sick
  • Eat healthy to maintain your immune system
  • Cover your mouth/nose when you cough or sneeze
  • Flu shot

Outbreak Statistics:

Spanish Influenza: 1818-1819

- An estimated 50 thousand people died


Hong Kong Flu Virus (Spread to America): 1968-1969

- The mildest flu epidemic in history as of that time


Swine Flu: 2009-2010

- 48 of the 50 states in America were effected by this virus

Risk Factors: DONE CITED

  • Age: younger children and older people
  • Pregnancy
  • Chronic medical conditions

Citations:

"Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.


"Flu Symptoms & Severity." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.


"Influenza." : Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, and Treating the Flu. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.


"Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Protein Function." Influenza. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.


"Pandemic Flu History." Pandemic Flu History. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.


"Pix For Flu Virus Under Electron Microscope." Pix For Flu Virus Under Electron Microscope. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.


"People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 08 Jan. 2015. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.


"Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 28 Aug. 2014. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.


"The Influenza Virus: Structure and Replication - Article in Motion." The Influenza Virus: Structure and Replication - Article in Motion. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.


"Treatment." For the Flu. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.


"What to Do When You've Got the Flu." Kelowna Now. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.