Phillip II of Spain


Early life and marriages

Philip was the son of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.

Philip contracted four marriages. The first was with his cousin Maria of Portugal in 1543. She died in 1545, giving birth to the ill-fated Don Carlos. In 1554 Philip married Mary I of England and became joint sovereign of England until Mary’s death

Phillip II and the divine right

As Ferdinand and Isabella, Phillip further centralized royal power, making every part of the government responsible to him. He reigned as an absolute monarch, a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people.Like other European rulers, Philip asserted that he ruled by divine right. That is, he believes that his authority to rule came directly from god.Phillip saw himself as the guardian of the Roman Catholic Church.

The wars of Phillip II


Charles, despite his harsh actions, had been seen as a ruler empathetic to the needs of the Netherlands. Philip, on the other hand, was raised in Spain and spoke neither Dutch nor French. During Philip's reign, tensions flared in the Netherlands over heavy taxation, suppression of Protestantism, and centralisation efforts.


Phillip II sent 200 ships to the Ottoman Empire. A large Ottoman fleet was defeated in a battle near Lepanto. Defend Catholicism against Protestants of Europe. Phillip II launched the Spanish Armada against the Protestants of England to punish them. Elizabeth I queen of England, defeated the Spanish Armada. Wanted to punish Protestants and rebels in Netherlands.

Philip's dominions in 1580

During the last half of his region, Phillip battled Protestant rebels in the Netherlands.

Phillip saw England,s Queen Elizabeth I as his chief Protestant enemy.

English attacks and subdue the Dutch, Phillip prepared a huge armada,or fleet, to carry a Spanish invasion force to England .