Jessica Anowey

Reason For Water Purification, Biggest Issue Related To Water?

According to the water.org “More than 40% of people living in the greater Kampala(Uganda) area live in unplanned settlements. Of those residents, only 17% have access to piped water. Many people use springs and other surface sources that are highly contaminated due to poor drainage and little regulation of waste disposal. High population growth (more than 5% annually) due to migration to informal settlements stresses water and sanitation resources that are currently available.” If a water purification system is provided to them, then the level of clean drainage and uncontaminated water will increase, which will in turn reduce the amount of people that die due to the lack of clean water. One of the biggest issue related to water facing the population is, since those people don’t have a purified source of water, they tend to rely on contaminated sources of water such as streams and open wells, which could lead to water borne diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera.Furthermore, Kampala (Uganda) needs a water purification system, because according to my climate.org “ Lack of access to safe drinking water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene are responsible for the majority of the 1.8 million annual deaths caused by diarrheal disease. Children under five are particularly affected.” Another big issue facing the population is, these people boil their water to purify it and according to my climate.org “wood harvest for domestic cooking and boiling water is one of the major causes of deforestation. The burning of wood not only damages the environment, but can also negatively impact human health.”

Methods Of Purification

we are going to be providing water for the city of Kampala, which has 5 districts

Small Scale

They can actually continue boiling water but no longer with firewoods, we will try to provide this people with more advanced techniques of cooking, like getting them stoves. The technique works like this- as you are boiling the water, the heat is killing the bacteria inside of it, which is also a very safe way to purify your water, this process works like this, you provide them with the required materials which is kerosene stoves, and kettles, because, if we provide them with an electric stove, then it will be a waste of time and resources due to the fact that there is no steady electricity there.The cost of getting a kerosene stove is $55, and the cost of getting a kettle is about $90, so adding this two together it will amount to $145 and multiply it by 25 which is the amount that we need,it will all end up at about $3625. The advantages of this system is that it kills bacteria, it is the fastest way to disinfect water, it also removes some microorganisms, and chemicals that are present in the water, however the disadvantages are it is fuel consuming, time consuming, and can get recontaminated.

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This is the boiling process, you fill the kettle with the unclean water and set it on the stove, and let it boil, as it is boiling the bacteria is been killed by the heat and the water is been purified.

Large Scale

The Long term solution will be creating a Borehole for these people, this technique works like this, we will . I will build a new source of water, which is the borehole that will generate water from the ground, that will take off the worries of conserving resources, since the water is being generated from the ground.The cost will be about $112,500, because according to world press " the cost of the drilling tools is around $2000, and the cost of the wells is around $2500" adding this two and multiplying it by 25 which is the amount of boreholes we need to build it will end up being $112,500 . The advantages of building this borehole will be, a safer, cleaner and reliable source of water, and one wouldn’t have to walk a far distance in search of water, however the disadvantages will be, the high cost for installation, there is no guarantee the water will be found when drilling, and also the population won’t be able to make use of this technique effectively, due to the lack of electricity there that would hinder them from pumping water when needed.

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This is the process of building a borehole, so you use the drilling a well in the ground that will generate water, which will then be transferred to a water tank that will store the water that has been pumped and used through the tap.

Two methods of purification

This purification technique will revolve around two resources which will be, Distillation and the use of Alum.This will work by boiling water and collecting the steam, and putting alum in the water to disinfect it. The cost of this two will be about $3890.5, reason being we will need to buy kerosene stoves and kettles for them which costs about $145 and we will need to buy alum which cost $10.62 at walmart 25 alum, 25 kerosene stoves, and 25 kettles will all round up to be $3890.5. The advantages are it is very easy, not so much time consuming and very affordable, however the disadvantages are when you distill water you lose the nutrients in the water, and when you use alum the effectiveness is only effective at a certain pH

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This is water being distilled, so the kettle is on the stove and the water is boiling, and letting out steam, so the vapor that is being released is then collected via a tube into a cup, beaker, flask e.t.c.
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This is the process of adding alum to water, when you add alum to the dirty water, the alum dissolves carrying along with it, the dirt which will settle on the bottom and the clear purified water will stay on top.