AP Government Vocab

Unit Two

Chapter 4 The American Political Landscape

1. Ethnocentrism - Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group

2. Demography - The study of the characteristics of populations

3. Reinforcing Cleavages - divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar

4. Cross-cutting Cleavages - divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different

5. American Exceptionalism - The view that due to circumstances of history, the constitution, and liberty, the United States is different from other nations

6. Manifest Destiny - a notion held by nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the pacific

7. Sun Belt - region of United States in South and Southwest that has seen population growth relative to the rest of the country and which, because of its climate, has attracted retirees

8. Bible Belt - region of states in South and states bordering the South with a large number of strongly committed Protestants who see a public role for religion

9. Rust Belt - States in the Midwest once known for their industrial output, which have seen factories close and have experienced relatively high unemployment

10. Urban - densely settled territory that is often the central part of a city of metropolitan area

11. Suburban - an area that typically surrounds the central city, is often residential, and is nor as densely populated

12. Rural - sparsely populated territory and small towns, often associated with farming

13. Race - grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance

14. Ethnicity - social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race

15. Fundamentalists - Conservative Christians who, as a group, have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were especially influential in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections

16. Gender Gap - difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and women

17. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services

18. Socioeconomic Status (SES) - division of population based on occupation, income, and education

Chapter 5 Interest Groups The Politics of Influence

1. Collective Bargaining - process in which union represents a group of employees in negotiations with the employer about wages, benefits, and workplace safety

2. Recall - procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term

3. Faction - term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interest or interest groups

4. Pluralism - theory of gov't that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group

5. Interest Group - group who share common interest or attitude and seek political power

6. Social Movement - body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action

7. Open Shop - company with a labor agreement under which union memebership cannot be required as a condition of employment

8. Closed Shop - company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment

9. Free Rider - not in an interest group but gets the benefits of one who is

10. Professional Associations - groups of individuals who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to that profession

11. Nongovernment Organization (NGO) - association operating outside gov't that advocates and pursues policy objectives

12. Collective Action - how groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate

13. Public Choice - synonymous with "collective action," specifically studies how gov't officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negative incentives

14. Lobbying - engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact

15. Federal Register - an official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and propo

16. Amicus Curiae Brief - Note to supreme court saying "view this" or "don't view this"

17. Super PAC -

18. Bundling - rounding up money to give to a single candidate

19. Lobbyist - Person who influences a political official to be on the side of their employer

20. Resolving Door - Gov't job to interest group job or vice-versa

21. Issue Network - relationship between interest groups, congressional committees, and subcommittees

22. Political Action Committee (PAC) - group formed by interest groups to raise and contribute funds to a candidate or political party

23. Leadership PAC - PAC formed by office holder that collects money from people or other PACs and contributes to a candidate or political party

24. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) - Largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy

25. Soft Money - unlimited amount of money raised by political parties for party-building purposes

26. Independent Expenditures - people can spend unlimited amounts of money for or against candidates if they operate independently from the candidate(s)

27. Issue Advocacy - unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates

28. 527 Organization -tax-exempt groups organized under section 527 of the Revenue Service Code and they run ads against or for candidates but under more restrictive conditions than existed before 2004

Chapter 8 Campaigns and Elections Democracy in Action