Parenthetical Citations

Examples by Allen Stephen

!!!Always explain or reference the quote you use!!!!!

Remember even if you are paraphrasing, you still need to cite your source.

What to do with secondary sources

Secondary Sources: Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use “qtd. in” to indicate the source you actually consulted.

For example:

Jenkins discusses the advantages to of fine arts in schools as a “method to teach children to thing critically and creatively”(qtd. in Stephenson 42).

what to do when a source has no known authour

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work, or italicize it if it’s a longer work.

For example:

Coppell gains three million dollars from taxes and the state for art and sport programs ("Arts Education Funding").

What to do when its a direct quote

when making a parenthetical citation for a direct quote, use beginning and ending quotation marks.

For example:

"Mr. Holmes is a great English teacher, that's why we all have good grades."