Sociology Semester Project
By: Jalen Owens
Chapter 1: The Founders of Sociology
Some of the founders of sociology are Auguste Comte who coined the word sociology and felt one should discover social laws, Herbert Spencer a British intellectual who furthered the development of functionalism, Emile Durkheim viewed society as an organism, Karl Marx a German theorist and social activist who analyzed the effect of capitalism, Harriet Martineau who focused on the inequalities of the sexes, George Herbert Mead who founded symbolic interactionism and emphasized symbols as the key to society, and Max Weber a German Sociologist, he used data analysis and laid foundation for high quality sociological research.
May 5th, 1818 - March 14th, 1883
January 19th, 1789 - September 5th, 1857
April 27th, 1820 - December 8th, 1903
We move on to chapter 3 which looks at culture, society, instincts, sociobiology, evolution, language, the norms and values, and beliefs. Culture is knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by the members of a society. When we look at values which is a persons principles or standards of behavior; one's judgement of what is important. Society is a cluster of people who live together in a more or less community. Instincts are innate behaviors that are fixed behaviors reacting to a specific stimulant. Evolution is the gradual advancement of something; going from simple to more complex. The norms are our normal way of something. Beliefs are something that you trust or have faith in.
Chapter 4 Socialization and Desocialization
We moved on and discussed socialization and desocialization. Socialization is a process that begins when you begin to understand things as a young child and goes all the way up until the end of your life. Many different examples on how you are socialized are gender, economic status, friend group/people you hang out with, the way you were raised, race, sexuality, and religion. Each of these aspects define who each one of us are and show how we differentiate compared to one another. Desocialization is when you are removed from the normal society and placed somewhere else. The perfect example is a person who joins the military. They are trained and become distant from our normal society and then are socialized and trained to think in a different way.
Sociology of Sports
Sports are social institutions that fulfill important societal needs. They teach basic values of society, promotes attachment to society, and helps individuals identify with other members of society. In the American culture sports reflects the culture emphasis on achievement. They reflect a male dominated society in America, although much progress has been made toward equality in sports. Functionalists think sports are primarily important because it helps society work more smoothly. They can teach basic beliefs and values, promotes a sense of social identification, offers a safe release of aggressive feeling, and encourages the development of character. To conflict theorists sports are a social institution in which the most powerful oppress, manipulate, coerce and exploit others. Sports contribute to upward social mobility among collegiate athletes, but the opportunities are few and divert attention from academic learning and business related skills necessary for success. Women suffer from gender based stereotypes, although this situation is slowly improving.
Is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered accepted, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex. In movies, more specifically Disney movies they show masculine and feminine differences. The Disney princesses are all very feminine such as Snow White and Cinderella. While the female antagonists are not very feminine. The male protagonists in movies are very masculine, they look good and really don't have any flaws. While the male antagonists exhibit less masculinity then the protagonists. The majority of movies have the male being portrayed as the hero while the females are the damsels in distress.
Connection Between These Topics
Between these topics, Founders of Sociology, the different aspects of sociology, socialization and desocialization, sports and Gender Roles, they are all connected through society. It shows social structures the patterned ways in which people interact in society. All of these topics can have different viewpoints on them. For example someone may think that males should always be the hero role while someone else thinks both males and females are equal. But all of these topics fit under a larger, broader topic which is sociology.
How Each of the Topics Are Applicable to My Life
Most of these topics are applicable to my life. Without the founders of sociology we may not be discussing sociology or even have the word sociology. With all of the different terms we as a human race have different culture, society, instincts, sociobiology, evolution, language, the norms and values, and beliefs. To each and everyone of us, we all have differences in all of this, however slight it may be. It can be through society and the people/environment around us. Our genetics and our parents have a big impact on how we will turn out. I have been socialized my whole life. The closest thing to desocialization for me would be going to other states and being away from my friends and parents. When I am in these different areas people may act differently or speak differently or even look differently. I have played been on soccer, baseball and tennis teams. The way gender roles have effected me, I personally haven't had any experience with this besides Disney movies and learning at a very young age that men and women were equal.
The way that sociology of sports and gender roles connect are that before World War 1, American society was mainly males working and playing sports. But when World War 1 happened women stood up and proved themselves by working in factory's and working in formerly male only positions. This proved that women were as capable as men. Then World War 2 came and women formed major league sports teams, particularly in baseball. This then became successful. This paved the way for women sport teams in schools, colleges and professional sports today. This in turn gives women a way to express themselves and have more options in life.