Protein Synthesis

Central Dogma of Biology

Central dogma is the main thesis of molecular inheritance.

  • Replication - DNA replicates its information
  • Transcription - DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Post-transcriptional modification - mRNA is processed and migrates from the nucleus to cytoplasm
  • Translation - mRNA carries coded information to ribosomes and this information is read and used for protein synthesis.

Significance of Protein Synthesis

  • Enzymes - speed up the rate of chemical reactions in our body
  • Antibodies - defend our body from antigens, which are foreign invaders.
  • Contractile proteins - responsible for movement, such as muscle contraction
  • Hormonal proteins - help to coordinate certain activities in our body (eg. insulin regulates our blood glucose level)
  • Structural proteins - fibrous and provide support (eg. collagens provide support for connective tissues)
  • Storage proteins - stores amino acids
  • Transport proteins - carrier proteins, which move molecules from one place to another around the body (eg. haemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood)