The Attack on Pearl Harbor

Japanese Naval Attack

Events Leading Up to the Attack

  • War between the United States and Japan had been brewing since the 1920s, however, real tension didn't start until 1931 with the invasion of Machuria by Japan
  • Over the next decade, Japan slowly expands into China leading to the Second-Sino Japanese war in 1937
  • In 1940 they invaded French Indochina in effort to embargo all exports including supplies purchased from the U.S
  • This promoted United States to embargo all oil exports
  • The Phillaphines were also a target, however, they decided not to attack until Pearl Harbor

The Japanese Attack

  • Attack happened at 7:48 am Hawaiian Time on December 7, 1941
  • Pearl Harbor was planned by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
  • Japan planned the attack for about a year and used strategies that would do the most damage to the U.S
  • Sent 353 Japanese fighter Planes, bombers, and torpedo planes
  • Coordinated Attacks on U.S held countries including Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island
  • Attacks on British Empire in Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong
(Photo: Japanese Fighter Planes)

Physical Damage on the U.S

  • All eight U.S Naval ships were damaged, with four sunk
  • The Japanese also sunk or severely damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, and anti-aircraft training ship, and one mine-layer (ship that lays bombs)
  • 2,403 crewmen died including 22 Arizona Bandmen
  • 1,177 men were wounded

"A date which will live in infamy" (FDR)

Emotional Damage in the U.S

  • Many families lost their fathers, brothers, cousins, etc
  • Many families and survivors of Pearl Harbor were diagnosed with PTSD
  • Some men could not live with the guilt of their fellow crew mate dying so some committed suicide
(Photo: War Cry encouraging people to help with the war effort)

U.S Response to the Attack (Role/Signifignace)

  • Congress declared war on the Empire of Japan, outraged about the bombing
  • The U.S intensifies military mobilization
  • Once converted to a war economy, which was made possible by the provisions of weapons and supplies from Britain and the Soviet Union

Pearl Harbor caused the U.S to enter WWII

Life of a Japanese-American Citizen

  • The U.S becomes concerned with Japanese-American Citizens in the West Coast (sympathizers)
  • On Febuary 19, 1942 FDR signs the executive order 9066 ordering Japanese-Americans on the West Coast (110,000 Japs) into internment camps
  • Some Germans and Italians were also rounded up
  • After review, some people were released and other were sent to detention camps
  • Curfews and travel became restricted for Japanese-Americans
(Photo: Detention Camp in Colorado)