Bone Cancer

By Melissa Field and Molly Saturley

What is bone cancer?

Bone cancer is a bone tumor which destroys bone tissue. There are two types of bone cancer, Primary and Metastatic. Primary bone cancer is a cancerous tumor that begins in the bone tissue while Metastatic bone cancer forms from other cancers spreading to the bone. Primary bone cancer is much less common than Metastatic bone cancer.

Figure 1 (U.S. National Library Of Medicine)

Symptoms of Bone Cancer

The most common symptom of bone cancer is pain. Usually the pain worsens over time and there is a swelling mass/lump around the area of pain. Bone fractures can occur at the site of cancer because of the weakened bone.

Impacts on Life

Prevalence of Bone Cancer

American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society estimates for cancer of the bones and joints for 2015 are:

-about 2,970 new cases will be diagnosed

-about 1,490 deaths from these cancers are expected

Figure 8 (American Cancer Society)

How is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

-Blood tests, imaging and physicals can help detect cancer

  • Bone cancer can have same symptoms as bone tumors

  • Cancer will not always look solid on x rays, they will look like holes in the bone or the tumor around the bone

  • CT scans seeing if cancer moves to lungs, liver or organs.

  • Biopsies require tissue from the tumor to be observed under a microscope

  • If the tumor is cancerous, doctors can tell if it was initially bone cancer or if it was spread throughout the body.

What Are Some Causes of Bone Cancer?

  • Bone cancer can be hereditary

  • Bone cancer is also caused by abnormal cell growth and uncontrollable cell division

What Happens at the Cellular Level?

  • Cancer cells take glucose

  • Cancer cells create very little ATP

  • Cancer cells do not listen to body signals which control cell division

  • Cancer cells use normal cells to supply tumors with nutrients

  • cancer cells use the immune system to keep dividing cells
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Treatments of Bone Cancer

The type of treatment depends on many different factors like size, shape, location etc.


Surgery is the usual way people remove the tumor. The surgeon will remove the whole tumor and the tissue around it (just to be sure).


Chemotherapy is another treatment that uses anticancer drugs to "cancel out" the cancer. It usually takes a combination of drugs to remove it.


Radiation Therapy, or radiotherapy, is using high energy x-rays to zap out the cancerous tumor. Some may decide to use this with surgery to be sure the tumor is gone.


Cryosurgery uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill the tumor's cells. This method can be used as an alternative to surgery.

Bone Jokes

Now, because cancer is such a sad, sensitive subject, we have included some bone jokes. So, you're welcome...


-Why didn't the skeleton cross the road? Because he didn't have the guts...

-Why is your nose in the middle of your face? Because it is the scenter...

-I'm patelling you this, it's going tibia okay...

-My jokes are pretty humorous aren't they....

-Why are graveyards so noisy? Because of all the coffin...

-What? A telephone? Nah, I'm using a telebone...


*whispers* you are sooo welcome

Learn More About Bone Cancer

American Cancer Society Link

Works Cited - Molly

http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/diagnosis

"Diagnosis." National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, 9 Mar. 2015. Web. 23 Dec. 2015.

This is a credible source because it is written and published by doctors for cancer patients and common knowledge. The public can not edit these articles, only medical professionals can edit the articles and they are medically revised after each article is posted. The American Cancer Society is an official cancer treatment center with locations all across America, specializing in the treatment of all kinds of cancer. This article was published and medically revised very recently, and the American Cancer Society is constantly updating their website and looking for cures and treatments. This source is not biased, very factual and true, and would be used to inform the public on the diagnosis of bone cancer.

http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/what-is-cancer

What Is Cancer?" National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, 9 Feb. 2015. Web. 23 Dec. 2015.

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bonecancer/detailedguide/bone-cancer-what-causes

Society, American Cancer. "Do We Know What Causes Bone Cancer?" Do We Know What Causes Bone Cancer? American Cancer Society, 25 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

http://patient.info/health/myeloma-leaflet

EMIS Group. "Myeloma." Patient. EMIS Group, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=amhe95753rpa&currPage=&source=&jsid=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CESZMAG978931372

Work Cited-Melissa

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bonecancer/detailedguide/index

"Bone Cancer." Detailed Guide. American Cancer Society, n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

This site is a credible topic because it is a nonprofit organization that specializes in researching cancer. They have top notch doctors/researchers working around the clock to find cures. The reputation of the American Cancer Society is well known for being a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer. Some obvious bias would be that cancer is bad (which it is), but I don't think this type of bias is a bad thing. The information is updated all the time. Whenever their researchers find something new or that has changed, they'll fix the article. Some information may have changed from when it was first published but with the researchers updating it, there is nothing to worry about. This source goes into a lot more depth than any of the others. I think this is because the American Cancer Society is a whole organization dedicated to researching cancer. I can see why they would give a lot of information. Not only is there background information, but all of the other types of information as well. There is a section to hear about peoples stories and another where you can talk with a doctor. This source covers everything i'd need to know about bone cancer.


http://www.cancer.gov/types/bone/bone-fact-sheet

"Bone Cancer." National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, 13 Mar. 2008. Web. 16 Dec. 2015


http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bonecancer/

"Bone Cancer." Bone Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015


http://www.medicinenet.com/bone_cancer_overview/article.htm

Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. "Bone Cancer: Learn About Symptoms, Treatment & Prognosis." MedicineNet. N.p., 12 Nov. 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.


Academic Journal (Honors)

Thompson, Stephen W.N., and David Tonge. "Bone cancer gain without the pain." Nature Medicine 6.5 (2000): 504+. Science in Context. Web. 20 Dec. 2015.


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