GERMANY'S CHEMICALS

By: Danilo, Keylah, & Collin

HOW THE CHEMICALS WERE USED

Phosgene and Disphosgene was used to kill soldiers in the trenches, and caused roughly 85% gas related fatalities in World War I.

Mustard gas is a blistering agent that damages eyes, skin, & respiratory tract. It causes chemical burns on contact with skin, and intermediately reacts with DNA leading to cell death. However, its mortality rate was only 2-3% during World War I.

Tear gas is known as "lachrymatory agents," which irritates mucus membranes in the eyes, mouth, throat, & lungs, leading to crying, coughing, breathing difficulties, and temporary blindness. Its main used was to disable enemies rather than killing them, and estimating 0 casualties from it.

Chlorine responds with water in the lungs, which forms hydrochloric acid. It causes coughing, vomiting, irritation of the eyes, and even rapid death concentrations at 1000 parts per million. Less than 1,100 fatalities it caused on its first used. However, soldiers found an alternative way on limiting its effectiveness.

CHARACTERISTICS

Phosgene

  • Colorless gas.
  • Smells like freshly cut grass.

Disphosgene

  • Colorless, oily liquid.

Mustard gas

  • When pure, it is colorless and odorless liquid, however it is used as a chemical agent in impure form.
  • Yellow-brown in color and smells like garlic or horseradish.

Tear gas

  • Combination of ethyl bromoacetate, chloroacetone, & xylyl bromide
  • Ethyl bromoacetate and Chloroacetone are colorless to light yellow liquids with fruity, strong odors.
  • Xylyl bromide is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor.

Chlorine

  • Yellow-green gas with a pungent, bleach-like odor.
  • Soldiers described its smell as of distinct mix of pepper and pineapple.

IMAGE OF THE CHEMICALS

Big image

Phosgene & Disphosgene

Actually unknown substance, but believed as phosgene.