The Hunger Games
Created by Mercedes Hoyos
Cannon & Washburn (1912) Experiment
For centuries, the root causes of hunger have remained hidden underneath the soil. In 1912, however, a small band of psychologists (Cannon and Washburn) theorized that the pangs of the stomach may be signaling this physiological phenomena within one’s body. The purpose of their experiment was to test this notion, discover more about the feelings of hunger, and uncover any previously unknown correlations or relationships, as well.
Washburn agreed to swallow a small balloon attached to a recording device; when inflated to fill his stomach, it transmitted contractions. He depicted his experiences of hunger by pressing a key each time he felt a hunger pang. Overall, it was concluded that an individual has stomach contractions whenever he feels hungry (it is correlational, no causational). The pangs of an empty stomach are not the only source of hunger.
This investigation may be applied to the residents of District 12, as they can learn to associate the pangs of their stomach with their feelings of dire hunger or thirst. It may also allow them to recognize that there are other indications of this occurrence apart from the occasional rumble (that should not be ignored). Hence, the may be able to more effectively aid themselves.
Body Chemistry & Glucose (Blood Sugar)
Glucose (Blood Sugar)The proper term in psychology, or most sciences, for “blood sugar” is glucose. Glucose can be more thoroughly defined as the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides a major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, one experiences the displeasure of hunger. One may also be led into obesity, overeating, and so on as they are not able to feel satisfied. In stark contrast, high levels inhibit eating and hunger (induce starvation).
When insulin is not secreted, the blood sugar levels of an individual will be quite high. Hence, one will not wish to eat very much.
If a great amount insulin is secreted, one's blood sugar will remain relatively low. Hence, they will wish to eat more.
The Hypothalamus (Later, Ventromedial)
The Five Hunger Hormones
Insulin - Hormone secreted by the pancreas; controls blood glucose
Ghrelin - Hormone secreted by empty stomach; send hungers signals to the brain
Orexin - Hunger-triggering hormone sent by the hypothalamus
Leptin - Protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
- PYY - Digestive tract hormone; sends signals to the brain that diminish hunger (or indicate fullness or satisfaction)
The Weight Thermostat
The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Cultural Influences on Taste Preferences
Body chemistry, as well as environmental factors, influence one’s hunger and personal taste preferences.
Salty - Central Asia consumes the most salt due to their large amount of good involving MSG compared to more organic countries which consume less sodium.
Sour - Countries located within the Eastern hemisphere, such as Greece and Asia, have a higher threshold for sour foods (e.g. lemons). This is due to their large variety of vegetation, much of which includes citruses, and the use of anything consumable without waste.
Bitter - Coffee is widely drinken worldwide, but in independent, western cultures, a variety of different sweeteners are utilized. This is to appeal to people’s sweet tooth, as well as distract from the bitterness (not common in many American foods, and unlike other nations in which residents often enjoy their coffee black).
Sweet - In the west, vanilla is utilized for sweetening food and incorporated into many luxurious desserts. In stark contrast, East Asia implements vanilla in savory dishes and accompanies it with several other different foods (for more flavorful or unique combinations).
- Umami - In many rural areas, such as Kenya, the people are accustomed to drinking the blood of animals, as well as all of their remains. This contrasts from other countries which have adopted more keen vegetarian diets, inhibiting the umami taste preference.
Eating Disorders (Anorexia & Bulimia)
In the year 2017, there was a bewildering reformation of health regimens in the United States.
In the year 2016, the health regimen of those who lived in the most developed or heavily industrialized countries was reformed. Prior to this event, 1.5 billion adults carried the heavy weight of obesity (as well as the disease’s complications) on their shoulders. Around 65% of the world population also lived in a country in which more people were likely to die to their overweight bodies rather than malnutrition. Yet, not to long ago the words anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa became other pinnacles of the nutrition or health world. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which there is a purposeful loss or lack of appetite (in a gross conquest for a skinnier, more “ideal” body). Bulimia nervosa is another eating disorders involving the distortion of one’s body image, in which an individual is succumbed to a life of depression, as well as self-induced vomiting, purging, and/or fasting.
The Drive-Reduction Theory
DescriptionThe drive-reduction theory explores how physiological needs create aroused tension states (drives) that direct us to satisfy those needs. For example, an individual's need is water, his thirst is the drive, and the drive-reducing action is drinking it. This notion is based on the inner-workings of homeostasis, or an organism’s need to balance their physiological, mental, and any other state (in general).
The physiological aim, as stated, is to reach homeostasis (see below).