Amount of Produced Hydroelectricity Canada vs. Worldwide

Hydroelectricity is one of the most used forms of renewable energy worldwide, accounting for 19% of all energy used in the world. Hydroelectricity is used in 150 countries and Canada is the second largest consumer of this type of energy right after China. In 2006, 59% of Canada's energy was made by hydroelectricity. In 2011, 10.8% of all hydro power used all over the world was used by Canada. Provinces and territories in Canada such as Quebec, British Colombia, New Found Land and Labrador, Yukon and Manitoba make 90% of their energy using this method

How It Works

There are many ways of using water to make energy, hydro power is made by the force of falling water. One of the most commonly used ways of using water to make energy is a hydroelectric dam. A hydroelectric dam has a lot of water behind it, called the reservoir which is located at the top of the dam. Near the middle of the of the dam there is an intake that controls the amount of water forced into the penstock. The penstock is tilted so the water can flow through, at the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller which is connected to a generator. The generator is given electricity by the force of the water moving the propeller and then the shaft from the turbine moves up and produces the electricity for the generator. There are power lines connected to the generator which is how it distributes the electricity to us.

The second way of using water to make electricity is called a pumped storage. Question when do we use electricity the most? Most answers would be that they use it in the day when the sun is out and people have to go to work, school, markets etc. But when the night comes and people got to bed after a long day they turn off their lights and sleep. So hydrologists thought of pumped storage , it's like a hydroelectric dam but when the the night falls they suck up all the water used in the day time back up the storage pool through the turbines that they flowed through the day and back down the it during the day time when electricity is on high demand.

How It Is Distributed

There is a power station when the electricity is made this power station it travels through very high voltage cables so that they can make it to our home quickly, these are held up by towers in series. There are also underground low voltage cables that are safely transferred into our home.

How It Effects Us

Though Hydroelectricity does not pollute the air it causes great damage to the environment just by building it. These dams aren't small, most of them are huge, which means they have to cut down many trees, ruin an a complete environment just to make one dam. But they do not only effect nature it also effects us for example in Brazil they built a quite large hydroelectric plant on a flat surface of 2,360 square kilometers, which they flooded! That is about the size of Delaware. These dams can also effect aquatic animals, most likely fish because they can be killed by the turbines which lessens food for other animals and when some fish want to swim upstream to produce they are not able to because of the dam blocking their way. Though no fuels are burned during this process of make electricity, if there is a large amount of vegetation that had grown in the sides of the river, it can decay and release methane a potent greenhouse gas that can effect our climate because most greenhouses stay in our atmosphere and warms up our climate.

Though not a big problem and does not happen a lot there are changes in the water chemically that involve changes in the oxygen in the water, altered nutrient levels, and increased mobilization in metals. A big problem in this problem is Mercury the element ( atomic number 80 and atomic symbol Hg) when bonded into the water ( H2O) it can effect the fish negatively so that when we consume it, it can cause severe health risks to us and other animals that consume it which is a lot and can effect our environment.