BIRTH CONTROL MEASURES

PROjECT

Birth control measures help couples in planned parenthood (i.e. to either have desired number of children only, or have no baby until ready). Moreover, birth control plays a very important role in keeping the family sizes small, and in limiting the increase in the human population.


There are several types and methods of birth control: Natural, Chemical, Mechanical (barrier), and Surgical.

NATURAL METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL

1. ABSTINENCE

  • Involve the couple avoiding sexual intercourse completely.
  • Is the best way of avoiding an unwanted pregnancy.

2. MONITORING BODY TEMPERATURE AND CERVICAL MUCUS

  • Around the time of ovulation, body temperature of the woman rises slightly and the cervical mucus, produced in the woman's vagina, becomes more liquid and slippery.
  • Considering these, a woman can work out the 'safe period' (for intercourse), when an egg is least likely to be in her oviducts.
  • However, not very reliable, because not many have regular cycles (making it difficult to identify exactly when ovulation will occur).

CHEMICAL METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL

1. IUD (Intra-uterine device)

  • A small, "T" shaped device, with copper coil, can be inserted by a specialized doctor into the wall of the uterus.

  • It doesn't stop fertilization, but prevents implantation of the embryo.

  • Though this method is long-lasting, there is a small risk of developing uterine infections, and it does not protect against STIs


2. IUS (Intra-uterine system)

  • Similar to IUD; "T" shaped and releases the hormone progesterone slowly over a long period of time (up to 5 years)
  • this prevents ovulation
  • However, IUS does not protect against STIs


3. CONTRACEPTIVE PILL

  • Oral pill; contains the chemicals that have the same effect on the body as oestrogen and progesterone - when mixed in suitable proportions, these hormones suppress ovulation.
  • Need to be taken each day for the 21 days between menstrual periods.
  • Though they re very reliable, long-term usage may increase the risk of breast and cervical cancer. Also, it does not protect against STIs.


4. CONTRACEPTIVE IMPLANT

  • Small plastic tube, inserted by specialized doctor under the skin of the upper arm of the woman.
  • It slowly releases the hormone progesterone, preventing pregnancy.
  • Though it is long-lasting and very reliable, it does not protect against STIs


5. CONTRACEPTIVE INJECTION

  • The injection contains hormone progesterone.
  • Thickens the mucus in the cervix, stopping sperm reaching an egg.
  • Also, thins the lining of the uterus, making it unsuitable for the implantation of an embryo.
  • However, it does not protect against STIs.

MECHANICAL METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL

1. CONDOM

  • Thin sheath that is placed over the man's erect penis
  • It prevents any sperm from getting into the woman's vagina
  • Though it might be not very reliable, it does protect against STIs ie. it prevents the transmission of any pathogens passing between the couple.
  • However reliable, if spermicide cream is also used.


2. FEMIDOM

  • Thin plastic sheath placed inside the vagina
  • Prevents any sperm from getting into the vagina
  • Also protects against STIs


3. DIAPHRAGM

  • Sometimes called a cap.
  • Dome-shaped rubber barrier that fits in the vagina at the cervix.
  • Prevents any sperm from getting into the vagina.
  • Effective only if of the correct size.
  • Reliable if used with a spermicide.

SURGICAL METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL

1. MALE STERILISATION - VASECTOMY

  • Safe, surgical operation that involve cutting the man's sperm ducts and sealing the ends
  • This means the semen, released during ejaculation, will have secretions from the prostate gland and seminal vesicle, but no sperm.
  • However, the testis continue to produce sperm and testosterone; the sperm are removed by white cells as fast as they are form, while the testosterone ensures that the man doesn't lose his masculinity.
  • Extremely reliable; normally non-reversible.


2. FEMALE STERILIZATION

  • Surgical operation that involve tying the oviducts, blocked or cut.
  • Menstruation continue as before, but no sperm can reach the ova.
  • Ova are released, but they break down in the upper part of the oviduct.
  • Extremely reliable; normally non-reversible.