China Choice Board

4 Modernizations, Deng Xiaoping, and the Tienanmen Massacre

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping is one of the most powerful Chinese figures in the People's Republic of China. He helped to modernize China after Mao Zedong died. Deng Xiaoping was born on August 22, 1904. He was the son of a well-to-do landowner. He joined the Chinese Communist Party while he was in high school and traveled to France and Moscow. He believed he could make the economy more modern and stable if China had invested in the 4 Modernizations, industry, agriculture, science, and national defense. The plan of modernizing china with the 4 modernizations was made by Zhou Enlai in 1963; Deng Xiaoping made a law so it was sure to happen. He also passed the “One Child Policy” in 1980 to control China’s rapidly growing population. In 1989, when the Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev visited Tiananmen Square, there were widespread protests and marches and shut down the government. After hesitation, Deng agreed to remove the protesters by force. This was later known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, which killed hundreds, maybe thousands of protesters. He was faced with worldwide criticism but still remained in power. He increased the standard of living of China modernized their economy. He died at the age of 92 on February 19, 1997.

The 4 Modernizations: Agriculture and Industry

During the 4 Modernizations, farmers were given more choices. They were given the choice to decide what they produce. They could also decide to sell surplus products and keep the extra money they made. China provided money for new tools and seeds. Also, new quotas were made for higher production of produce. The industry changed as well. Instead of a heavy industry, like producing iron and steel, the industry started to produce more consumer friendly goods. Factory workers and managers had more rights and made more decisions for running the factory. They needed to invest in human capitals, due to the fact that they made new methods of production.

The 4 Modernizations: Science and Defense

During the 4 Modernizations, modern technology allowed China to produce more consumer friendly goods. The new methods of production required new training, meaning that China had to invest in human capitals. Because China's government has more control over the economy, the changes made were quick and widespread. Nowadays, the Chinese enjoy a higher standard of living than ever before.

Tiananmen Massacre

It started when students began to protest on the streets about the death of former communist party member, Hu Yaobang. The government had tried to make them leave without force, after many failed attempts they decided to counteract and shoot them. anywhere from hundreds to thousands of people were injured or killed.