Language Arts 6th grade
What we have learned so far
Chapter 1 THE SENTENCE: SUBJECT AND PREDICATE, KINDS OF SENTENCES
Example: The boy ran home.
SENTENCE FRAGMENT = a word group that is not a sentence; does not have a subject and verb
Example: up on the hill
SUBJECT = tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Example: Kelly loves basketball.
COMPLETE SUBJECT = consists of all the words needed to tell whom or what the sentence is about.
Example: His house is on a farm.
SIMPLE SUBJECT = the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about
Example: His house is on a farm.
PREDICATE = of a sentence tells something about the subject
Example: The dog runs fast.
COMPLETE PREDICATE = consists of a verb and all the words that describe the word and complete its meaning
Example: The dogs runs fast.
SIMPLE PREDICATE = or verb , is the main word or word group in the complete predicate
Example: The dog runs fast.
COMPOUND SUBJECT = consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb
Example: Hannah and Megan love baseball.
COMPOUND VERB = consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject
Example: The dog barks and runs at the mailman.
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE = makes a statement and ends with a period
Example: The house is locked.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCE = gives a command or makes a request. Most end with a period.
Example: Lock the door.
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE = asks a question and ends with a question mark
Example: Did the doorbell ring?
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE = shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point
Example: Hurry up!
CHAPTER 2: PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW; Noun, Pronoun and Adjective
NOUN = a word or word group that is used to name a person, place or thing (person, place, thing or idea)
Example: Kelly carried all the wood.
PROPER NOUN = names a particular place, person, thing or idea
Example: President Obama lives in the White House.
COMMON NOUN = names any person, place, thing or idea
Example: The house is at the end of the subdivision.
PRONOUN =a word used that is used in place of one or more nouns
Example: She ran the track by herself.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN = refers to the subject and is necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.
Example: Kelly bought himself a burger.
INTENSIVE PRONOUN = emphasizes its antecedent and is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.
Example: Kelly himself bought a burger.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN = points out a specific person, place, thing or idea
Example: This is the boy.
INDEFINITE PRONOUN = refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may or may not be specifically named
Example: All of them are good.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN = introduces a question
Example: Who is doing that?
RELATIVE PRONOUN = introduces a subordinate clause
Example: Which one is right?
ADJECTIVE = a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun
Example: The ocean is calm and blue.
PROPER ADJECTIVE = formed a proper noun and begins with a capital letter
Example: It is Thanksgiving Day.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE = when they modify nouns or pronouns
Example: These books are mine.
CHAPTER 3: PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunctions and Interjections
Example: He walks fast.
HELPING VERB = helps the main verb to express action or a state of being
Example: I can run.
VERB PHRASE = the main verb and its helping verb or verbs
Example: I could have done that.
ACTION VERB = a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity
Example: He is thinking about it.
LINKING VERB = a verb that connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.
Example: She is a painter.
TRANSITIVE VERB = a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing or idea
Example: We visited the museum.
INTRANSITIVE VERB = a verb that tells something about the subject or expresses action without the action passing to a receiver, or object
Example: I am running across the street.
ADVERB = a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb
Example: The drive was too long.
PREPOSITION = a word that shows the relationship between a noun and a pronoun and another word in the sentence
Example: We found it underneath the bed.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE = the preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object
Example: We hid underneath the bed.
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION = the noun or pronoun as an object of the preposition
Example: We put icing over the entire cake.
CONJUNCTION = a word that joins words or a group of words
Example: We had eggs and toast.
INTERJECTION = a word that expresses emotion
Example: Well, the test was hard.
CHAPTER 4: THE PHRASE AND THE CLAUSE: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, INDEPENDENT AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Example: around the corner
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE = includes a preposition, the object of a preposition and any modifiers of that object
Example: I found the cat underneath the front porch.
ADJECTIVE PHRASE = a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun
Example: The pile of leaves was large.
ADVERB PHRASE = a prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
Example: The kids skate around the lake every Saturday.
CLAUSE = a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence
Example: We helped the movers move all the furniture.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE = expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence
Example: After we cut the cake, we gave out slices.
SUBORDINATE (DEPENDENT) CLAUSE = does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence
Example: After we started
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE = a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun
Example: We learned the rules after we started the project.
ADVERB CLAUSE = a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
Example: Since we made good grades, we are moving up.
SIMPLE SENTENCE = has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses
Example: My friend loved the movie.
COMPOUND SENTENCE = consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a command a connecting word.
Example: I took the test, but I had a makeup test, too.
COMPLEX SENTENCE = contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause
Example: When we turn in this test, the teacher will give us the average score.
CHAPTER 5: COMPLEMENTS - DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS, SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS
Example: We found a kitten.
DIRECT OBJECT = a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb
Example: I called the doctor.
INDIRECT OBJECT = a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. It tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done
Example: She bought herself a purse.
SUBJECT COMPLEMENT = a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject
Example: The cake smells so good.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE = a word or word group that is in the predicate that identifies the subject or refers to it
Example: My sister is smart and learns quickly.
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE = an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject
Example: She worked hard all day.
CHAPTER 6: AGREEMENT - SUBJECT AND VERB, PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT
Example: She is fun.
SINGULAR = words that refer to one person, place, thing or idea in number
Example: The baby was sleeping.
PLURAL = words that refer to more than one person, place, thing or idea in number
Example: The babies were sleeping.
INDEFINITE PRONOUN = a pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing or idea
Example: Many came to the party.
COMPOUND SUBJECT = a subject that is made up of two or more subjects that are connected by the conjunction and, or or nor and share the same verb
Example: The bears and lions are my favorite animals to see at the zoo.
ANTECEDENT = a pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent
Example: He took his bike to his summer home.
CHAPTER 7: USING VERBS CORRECTLY - PRINCIPAL PARTS, REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS, TENSE
Example: drive, driving, drove, have driven
REGULAR VERB = forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form
Example: bath, bathing, bathed, have bathed
IRREGULAR VERB = forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form
Example: throw, threw, have thrown
TENSE = indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb (present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect)
Example: happen, happening, happening, happening, happening, happening
PROGRESSIVE FORM = expresses continuing action or state of being
CHAPTER 8: USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY: SUBJECT AND OBJECT FORMS
Example: She is riding her bike.
OBJECT FORM = pronouns used as direct objects and indirect objects of verbs and as objects of prepositions
Example: The teacher helped me.
POSSESSIVE FORMS = are used to show ownership or possession
Example: That book is mine.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE = completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or refers to the subject of the sentence
Example: The teacher is my friend.
DIRECT OBJECT = completes the meaning of an action verb and tells who or what receives the action of the verb
Example: The teacher helped me.
INDIRECT OBJECT = may come between an action verb and a direct object
Example: Mitchell gave me the ball.
APPOSITIVE = a noun that identifies a pronoun
Example: Us boys went camping.
CHAPTER 9: USING MODIFIERS CORRECTLY - COMPARISON AND PLACEMENT
Example: I have five markers to share.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON = different forms of comparison (positive, comparative, and superlative)
Example: David jogs faster than me.
POSITIVE DEGREE = used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made
Example: The horse ran quickly.
COMPARATIVE DEGREE = used when two things are being compared
Example: This size car is better for than the size of a van.
SUPERLATIVE DEGREE = used when three or more things are being compared
Example: That is the best movie I ever saw.
DOUBLE NEGATIVE = the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea
Example: He could hardly say anything.
PLACEMENT OF MODIFIERS = place modifying words, phrases or clauses as close to possible to the words they modify
Example: The children from the nearest school came by.
MISPLACED MODIFIER = a modifier that seems to modify the wrong word in a sentence
Example: The children came by from the nearest school.