Language Arts 6th grade

What we have learned so far

Chapter 1 THE SENTENCE: SUBJECT AND PREDICATE, KINDS OF SENTENCES

SENTENCE = a sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought

Example: The boy ran home.


SENTENCE FRAGMENT = a word group that is not a sentence; does not have a subject and verb

Example: up on the hill


SUBJECT = tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Example: Kelly loves basketball.


COMPLETE SUBJECT = consists of all the words needed to tell whom or what the sentence is about.

Example: His house is on a farm.


SIMPLE SUBJECT = the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about

Example: His house is on a farm.


PREDICATE = of a sentence tells something about the subject

Example: The dog runs fast.


COMPLETE PREDICATE = consists of a verb and all the words that describe the word and complete its meaning

Example: The dogs runs fast.


SIMPLE PREDICATE = or verb , is the main word or word group in the complete predicate

Example: The dog runs fast.


COMPOUND SUBJECT = consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb

Example: Hannah and Megan love baseball.


COMPOUND VERB = consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject

Example: The dog barks and runs at the mailman.


DECLARATIVE SENTENCE = makes a statement and ends with a period

Example: The house is locked.


IMPERATIVE SENTENCE = gives a command or makes a request. Most end with a period.

Example: Lock the door.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE = asks a question and ends with a question mark

Example: Did the doorbell ring?


EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE = shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point

Example: Hurry up!




CHAPTER 2: PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW; Noun, Pronoun and Adjective

NOUN = a word or word group that is used to name a person, place or thing (person, place, thing or idea)

Example: Kelly carried all the wood.


PROPER NOUN = names a particular place, person, thing or idea

Example: President Obama lives in the White House.


COMMON NOUN = names any person, place, thing or idea

Example: The house is at the end of the subdivision.


PRONOUN =a word used that is used in place of one or more nouns

Example: She ran the track by herself.


REFLEXIVE PRONOUN = refers to the subject and is necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.

Example: Kelly bought himself a burger.


INTENSIVE PRONOUN = emphasizes its antecedent and is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.

Example: Kelly himself bought a burger.


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN = points out a specific person, place, thing or idea

Example: This is the boy.


INDEFINITE PRONOUN = refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may or may not be specifically named

Example: All of them are good.


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN = introduces a question

Example: Who is doing that?


RELATIVE PRONOUN = introduces a subordinate clause

Example: Which one is right?


ADJECTIVE = a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun

Example: The ocean is calm and blue.


PROPER ADJECTIVE = formed a proper noun and begins with a capital letter

Example: It is Thanksgiving Day.


DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE = when they modify nouns or pronouns

Example: These books are mine.

CHAPTER 3: PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunctions and Interjections

VERB = a word that expresses action or a state of being

Example: He walks fast.


HELPING VERB = helps the main verb to express action or a state of being

Example: I can run.


VERB PHRASE = the main verb and its helping verb or verbs

Example: I could have done that.


ACTION VERB = a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity

Example: He is thinking about it.


LINKING VERB = a verb that connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.

Example: She is a painter.


TRANSITIVE VERB = a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing or idea

Example: We visited the museum.


INTRANSITIVE VERB = a verb that tells something about the subject or expresses action without the action passing to a receiver, or object

Example: I am running across the street.


ADVERB = a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb

Example: The drive was too long.


PREPOSITION = a word that shows the relationship between a noun and a pronoun and another word in the sentence

Example: We found it underneath the bed.


PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE = the preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object

Example: We hid underneath the bed.


OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION = the noun or pronoun as an object of the preposition

Example: We put icing over the entire cake.


CONJUNCTION = a word that joins words or a group of words

Example: We had eggs and toast.


INTERJECTION = a word that expresses emotion

Example: Well, the test was hard.

CHAPTER 4: THE PHRASE AND THE CLAUSE: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, INDEPENDENT AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, SENTENCE STRUCTURE

PHRASE = a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject

Example: around the corner


PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE = includes a preposition, the object of a preposition and any modifiers of that object

Example: I found the cat underneath the front porch.


ADJECTIVE PHRASE = a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun

Example: The pile of leaves was large.


ADVERB PHRASE = a prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb

Example: The kids skate around the lake every Saturday.


CLAUSE = a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence

Example: We helped the movers move all the furniture.


INDEPENDENT CLAUSE = expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence

Example: After we cut the cake, we gave out slices.


SUBORDINATE (DEPENDENT) CLAUSE = does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence

Example: After we started


ADJECTIVE CLAUSE = a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun

Example: We learned the rules after we started the project.


ADVERB CLAUSE = a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb

Example: Since we made good grades, we are moving up.


SIMPLE SENTENCE = has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses

Example: My friend loved the movie.


COMPOUND SENTENCE = consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a command a connecting word.

Example: I took the test, but I had a makeup test, too.


COMPLEX SENTENCE = contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause

Example: When we turn in this test, the teacher will give us the average score.

CHAPTER 5: COMPLEMENTS - DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS, SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS

COMPLEMENT = is a word or word group that completes the meaning of the verb

Example: We found a kitten.


DIRECT OBJECT = a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb

Example: I called the doctor.


INDIRECT OBJECT = a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. It tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done

Example: She bought herself a purse.


SUBJECT COMPLEMENT = a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject

Example: The cake smells so good.


PREDICATE NOMINATIVE = a word or word group that is in the predicate that identifies the subject or refers to it

Example: My sister is smart and learns quickly.


PREDICATE ADJECTIVE = an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject

Example: She worked hard all day.

CHAPTER 6: AGREEMENT - SUBJECT AND VERB, PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT

NUMBER = the form a word takes to show whether the word is singular or plural

Example: She is fun.


SINGULAR = words that refer to one person, place, thing or idea in number

Example: The baby was sleeping.


PLURAL = words that refer to more than one person, place, thing or idea in number

Example: The babies were sleeping.


INDEFINITE PRONOUN = a pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing or idea

Example: Many came to the party.


COMPOUND SUBJECT = a subject that is made up of two or more subjects that are connected by the conjunction and, or or nor and share the same verb

Example: The bears and lions are my favorite animals to see at the zoo.


ANTECEDENT = a pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent

Example: He took his bike to his summer home.

CHAPTER 7: USING VERBS CORRECTLY - PRINCIPAL PARTS, REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS, TENSE

PRINCIPAL PARTS = the four basic forms of a verb (base form, present participle, past and the past participle)

Example: drive, driving, drove, have driven


REGULAR VERB = forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form

Example: bath, bathing, bathed, have bathed


IRREGULAR VERB = forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form

Example: throw, threw, have thrown


TENSE = indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb (present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect)

Example: happen, happening, happening, happening, happening, happening


PROGRESSIVE FORM = expresses continuing action or state of being

CHAPTER 8: USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY: SUBJECT AND OBJECT FORMS

SUBJECT FORM = pronouns used as subjects and predicate nominatives

Example: She is riding her bike.


OBJECT FORM = pronouns used as direct objects and indirect objects of verbs and as objects of prepositions

Example: The teacher helped me.


POSSESSIVE FORMS = are used to show ownership or possession

Example: That book is mine.


PREDICATE NOMINATIVE = completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or refers to the subject of the sentence

Example: The teacher is my friend.


DIRECT OBJECT = completes the meaning of an action verb and tells who or what receives the action of the verb

Example: The teacher helped me.


INDIRECT OBJECT = may come between an action verb and a direct object

Example: Mitchell gave me the ball.


APPOSITIVE = a noun that identifies a pronoun

Example: Us boys went camping.

CHAPTER 9: USING MODIFIERS CORRECTLY - COMPARISON AND PLACEMENT

MODIFIER = a word, a phrase, or a clause that makes the meaning of a word or word group more specific (the two kinds of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs)

Example: I have five markers to share.


DEGREES OF COMPARISON = different forms of comparison (positive, comparative, and superlative)

Example: David jogs faster than me.


POSITIVE DEGREE = used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made

Example: The horse ran quickly.


COMPARATIVE DEGREE = used when two things are being compared

Example: This size car is better for than the size of a van.


SUPERLATIVE DEGREE = used when three or more things are being compared

Example: That is the best movie I ever saw.


DOUBLE NEGATIVE = the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea

Example: He could hardly say anything.


PLACEMENT OF MODIFIERS = place modifying words, phrases or clauses as close to possible to the words they modify

Example: The children from the nearest school came by.


MISPLACED MODIFIER = a modifier that seems to modify the wrong word in a sentence

Example: The children came by from the nearest school.