Sigmund Freud

Sigmund freud

Freud was born on May 6th, 1856, in Freiberg in Mahren, Moravia and died on September 23rd, 1939 in London, England at age 83. He is an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of Psychoanalysis.

Defense mechanisms in his theory

Repression- an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious.

EX. During the Oedipus complex aggressive thoughts about the same sex parents are repressed.

Denial- Involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it.

EX. For example, smokers may refuse to admit to themselves that smoking is bad for their health.

Projection- This involves individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts,feelings and motives to another person.

EX. You might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can 'solve' the problem by believing that they hate you.

Displacement- Satisfying an impulse (e.g..agression) with a substitute object.

EX. Someone who is frustrated by his or her boss at work may go home and kick the dog.

Regression- This is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress.

EX. A child may begin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed when they need to spend some time in the hospital.

Sublimation- Satisfying an impulse with a substitute object. In a socially acceptable way.

EX. Sport is an example of putting our emotions into something constructive.



The first stage of personality development where libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in it's mouth to satisfy libido, and thus it's id demands. Oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life.

EX. finger-chewers, smokers, nail bitters, and thumb suckers.


The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world. Ego has developed. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationships with all forms of authority.

EX. potty training, when and where the child can defecate.


Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genital and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new source of pleasure. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear. child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent.

EX. homosexual, Heterosexual.


N further psychosexual development takes place during this stage. The libido is dormant. Much of child's energies are channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.

EX. sexual energy transmitted into activities, school, friendships, or hobbies.


The last stage of freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It's time of adolescent sexual experimentation , the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with one in 20's or so.

EX. marriage, dating.

Id, Ego, & SuperEgo

ID: The id the only component of personality that is present from birth. Unconscious and includes of the instinctive primitive behaviors.

EX. Sam was very thirsty but instead of waiting for the waiter, she reached across the table and drunk from Ms.Bailey's class, she was surprised.

EGO: The component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. Develops the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable.

EX.Sam is thirsty but she waits because she knows her waiter will be back, even though she wanted to drink from Ms.Bailey's glass.

SUPEREGO: Holds all the internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society-- our sense of wrong and right.

EX. Sam knew that if she reached across the table and drunk her drink it was wrong so she waited for the waiter even though she knew it would take a while.