Causes of the Civil War
By: Evelyn Tanumai
Missouri Compromise (1820)
The Missouri Compromise was made in the 1820s. It was a compromise between slave and free state. Missouri wanted to be part of the union, but Congress knew that adding a new state would unbalance the free and slave state. So, the 36° 30´ latitude line was made right underneath the state of Missouri. it was agreed on that any state that was above the line it was known as the free state unless it was changed otherwise. In addition, any state below the line it was agreed on that it was made as an slave state. In the end Missouri did though became a slave state, as Maine entered as an free state.
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act (1850)
Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published (1852)
Kansas - Nebraska Act (1854)
Dred Scott Decision (1857)
John Brown's Raid on Harper Ferry (1859)
John Brown was a radical abolitionist that hated slavery and thought it was God’s plan for him to end slavery. On October 16, 1859 John Brown raid started with him and his men taking over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown hoped of starting a slave rebellion, so he sent his men to the countryside to get slaves. But none showed up in fear of the punishment from their owners. Instead white southerners came and attacked Brown, in result him and his men was killed and captured along with him. He was found guilty for treason, murder, and conspiracy, as for his men they were also killed. On December 2, 1859 Brown was hanged and died. Many northerners grieved for his death, but some hated him and his actions he caused. For example, Abraham Lincoln agreed with Brown in his dislike of slavery, but argued that violence was not the answer. Some southerners were afraid of Brown's action and feared that maybe another “John Brown” may occur.
Election of 1860
In the year of 1860, in this part of history Americans started another presidential election. But the northern and southern democrats couldn’t agree on candidates. Northern Democrats selected Senator Stephen Douglas, and Southern Democrats selected John C. Breckenridge. While this was going on a new political party was made, called the Constitutional Union Party which their members selected John Bell as their candidate. At first Senator William Seward was the Republican leading candidate, but Abraham Lincoln was known more to the party members. All candidate supported slavery, but Lincoln was different with his disliking of slavery so the other candidates knew that Lincoln wouldn’t win. They hoped they could get enough electoral votes to make sure Lincoln couldn’t win the electoral college votes. In the end Abraham Lincoln won with the Republican help and became president, which the election angered the southerners and made them realize that the South was losing it national political power.
South Secedes (December 1860-June 1861)
As Lincoln for president he agreed on not abolishing slavery in the South, but said that slavery should not expand and would eventually die in which this angered many southerners. The South believed without slave labor their way of life would be destroyed, so they acted instantly. The South then resulted in wanting to secede from the union, and thought that they had the right to do so. President Buchanan disagreed with the South though, and Lincoln agreed too and thought that the South could but they would be going against the law and by revolution. A meeting in South Carolina, congress was trying to find a plan to help save the union. Senator John J. Crittenden found a way to help the South from seceding by protecting slavery and Crittenden didn’t want the south to secedes or cause a civil war. Though, Lincoln disagreed with Crittenden’s plan because he thought that there could not come into an agreement with the extension of slavery, and requested to the Republican would reject it too.