Acids & Bases

by: Andrew Little

Acid and Bases

An acid is a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.

A base is generally an ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.


Arrhenius Acids & Bases

Acids are hydrogen containing compounds that ionize to yield hydrogen ions (H+).

Bases are compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions (OH-).

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Household products

Bases consist of Ammonia, drain cleaner, baking soda, chalk, toothpaste,Windex, bleach, laundry detergent, shampoo, and egg whites

Acids yogurt, vinegar,lemon juice, citric acid, apples, jelly, pineapples, cranberry sauce, milk, and batteries.

Properties

Acids- taste sour; turn litmus paper red; and react with certain metals, such as zinc, to yield hydrogen gas.

Bases- taste sour; turn litmus paper red; and react with certain metals, such as zinc, to yield hydrogen gas.

Naming Acids and Bases

Acids- prefix "hydro" and suffix "-ic" means it has one ion attached to the hydrogen. the suffix "-ate" to "-ic". If the anions end in "-ite" the suffix is "-ous"

Bases- follows the same rules but adds a hydroxide to the end of each base.

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Neutralization

When neutral it means that the pH is 7 and to neutralize and acid you add a base watch will cause the acid to form a salt and water.

Molarity & pH

Morality is the a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent.

Mathematically it describes how concentrated a solution is

Measured in M

the lower number M the better it is, and the higher the number the worse it is

so if you get a 12M HCl and a .1M HCl the 12M is the worst pH

pH is the the proportion of H= in a solution

formula - pH=-log[acid]

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