States of Matter

by Jared Thomas

Solids

firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid.


Detail 1: Has a definite shape



Detail 2: Shape can change



Detail 3: Changing the container a solid is in will not change it's shape.



Examples: Table, chair, wall

Liquids

the state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but not a definite shape.





Detail 1: Takes the shape of its container



Detail 2: Can be poured from one container to another.



Detail 3: Particles in liquids have a very high density



Examples: water, syrup, honey

Gases

The state of matter in which a material has no definite shape or volume.



Detail 1: molecules are far apart and can move freely



Detail 2: high kinetic energy



Detail 3: no fixed volume



Examples: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen

Plasma

an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere and in fluorescent lamps) or at very high temperatures (as in stars and nuclear fusion reactors).


Detail 1: particles have extremely large amounts of energy



Detail 2: can be thought of as a gas containing electrons instead of atoms



Detail 3: most common phase of matter in the universe



Examples: lightning, aurorae, stars

Bose-Einstein Condensate

A state of matter that forms below a critical temperature in which all bosons in the matter fall into the same quantum state.


Detail 1: Einstein predicted it in the 20s



Detail 2: exists only a -273 degrees celsius



Detail 3: groups of atoms behave as though they are one particle.



Examples: thermal