The Protestant religion belief is the Five Solas or five Latin phrases, the five phrases in English translate to, by grace alone, by Scripture alone, by Christ alone, and Glory to God alone. They wanted to show how the authorities of the Catholic Church had the message of justification wrong before God and salvation in Jesus Christ.
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement in the 16th century, it was an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and ended up turning out to be the creation of Protestant Churches, this was led by Martin Luther.
Martin Luther was a German Monk who questioned the Catholic dogma and it leads to the Protestant Reformation. He was born in Eisleben, Germany, in 1483. In 1517 Luther penned a document attacking the Catholic Church's corrupt practice of selling "indulgences" to absolve sin.