Reproductive & Endocrine System

By: Aleesha Johnson & Team

Introduction

Okay so Endocrine and Reproductive systems, what in the world do they have in common? More than we would think. Today we are going to somewhat go in depth into these two systems. We are going to understand what they have in common, and what make hem two different systems.

Endocrine System

Basic Information:

  • Foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands
  • Hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another
  • Gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, chemicals
  • Gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body
  • Some types of glands release their secretions in specific areas
  • Exocrine glands, such as the sweat and salivary glands, release secretions in the skin or inside of the mouth
  • Major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes
  • Brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, thymus, skin, and placenta — also produce and release hormones.
  • Growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals
  • Tiny Systems:
  • Prolactin, which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding
  • Thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
  • Corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones


Reproductive System!

Female:

-Human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual

-A female's internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries

-The vagina is a muscular, hollow tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the uterus

-The vagina is about 3 to 5 inches (8 to 12 centimeters) long in a grown woman

-Because it has muscular walls, it can expand and contract

-The vagina's muscular walls are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist

-It's where the penis is inserted during sexual intercourse.

-It's the pathway that a baby takes out of a woman's body during childbirth, called the birth canal.

-It provides the route for the menstrual blood (the period) to leave the body from the uterus.

-The vagina connects with the uterus

-At the upper corners of the uterus, the fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries

-Each ovary measures about 1½ to 2 inches (4 to 5 centimeters) in a grown woman

-The ovaries are also part of the endocrine system because they produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone

-Although most people think of the gonads as the male testicles, both sexes actually have gonads: In females the gonads are the ovaries.

-The female gonads produce female gametes (eggs); the male gonads produce male gametes (sperm).

-After an egg is fertilized by the sperm, the fertilized egg is called the zygote

Reproductive System!

FEMALE

-Baby girl is born, her ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of eggs, which remain inactive until puberty begins

-At puberty, the pituitary gland, located in the central part of the brain, starts making hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce female sex hormones, including estrogen

-Girls begin to release eggs as part of a monthly period called the menstrual cycle

-Many girls also experience abdominal cramps during the first few days of their periods caused by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that make the smooth muscle in the uterus contract

-On average, the monthly cycle for an adult woman is 28 days, but the range is from 23 to 35 days

-Between 75 and 900 million sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they "swim" up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube

-About a week after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg (zygote) has become a multicelled blastocyst

-A blastocyst is about the size of a pinhead, and it's a hollow ball of cells with fluid inside.

-The blastocyst burrows itself into the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium

-The outer cells become thin membranes that form around the baby.

-The cells multiply thousands of times and move to new positions to eventually become the embryo

-8 weeks, the embryo is about the size of an adult's thumb, but almost all of its parts, the brain and nerves, the heart and blood, the stomach and intestines, and the muscles and skin, have formed

-9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change

-The fetus floats in amniotic fluid inside the amniotic sac

-Pregnancy lasts an average of 280 days

-Walls of the uterus contract as they are stimulated by the pituitary hormone oxytocin

-Delivery of the placenta, which at that point is called the afterbirth

-After it has separated from the inner lining of the uterus, contractions of the uterus push it out, along with its membranes and fluids.

Reproductive System!

Male:

-The male has reproductive organs, or genitals, that are both inside and outside the pelvis. The male genitals include:


the testicles


the duct system, which is made up of the epididymis and the vas deferens


the accessory glands, which include the seminal vesicles and prostate gland


the penis


-two testicles(pronounced: tes-tih-kulz), or testes (pronounced: tes-teez), produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells


-The testicles are oval-shaped and grow to be about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in length and 1 inch (3 centimeters) in diameter


-The testicles are also part of the endocrine system because they produce hormones, including testosterone (pronounced: tes-tos-tuh-rone)


-Testosterone is the hormone that causes guys to develop deeper voices, bigger muscles, and body and facial hair, and it also stimulates the production of sperm


-Alongside the testicles are the epididymis (pronounced: ep-ih-did-uh-mus) and the vas deferens (pronounced: vas def-uh-runz), which make up the duct system of the male reproductive organs


-the vas deferens is a muscular tube that passes upward alongside the testicles and transports the sperm-containing fluid called semen


-The epididymis and the testicles hang in a pouch-like structure outside the pelvis called the scrotum


-This bag of skin helps to regulate the temperature of testicles


-The accessory glands, including the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm


-The seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens to the side of the bladder


-The prostate gland, which produces some of the parts of semen, surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra(pronounced: yoo-ree-thruh), just below the bladder


-The penis is actually made up of two parts: the shaft and the glans. The shaft is the main part of the penis and the glans is the tip (sometimes called the head)


-All boys are born with a foreskin, a fold of skin at the end of the penis covering the glans.


-During the first stage of male puberty, the scrotum and testes grow larger.


-Next, the penis becomes longer, and the seminal vesicles and prostate gland grow.


-Hair begins to appear in the pubic area and later it grows on the face and underarms.


-During this time, a male's voice also deepens.


-Boys also undergo a growth spurt during puberty as they reach their adult height and weight.


-Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules(pronounced: sem-uh-nih-fuh-rus too-byoolz)

Conclusion

As you can see, in a way they are inter connected. Although they are two different systems, they are similar!

THANK YOU! HOPE YOU LEARNED A LOT!!