CMS Bodies Exhibit

Skeletal

STRUCTURE

Skeletal System- The adult human skeletal (also called Endoskeleton) system consists of 206 bones, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. Our skeletal system has two parts, the axial skeleton which has about 80 bones, and the appendicular skeleton which has 1256 bones. Our skeletal system helps our bodies in many ways. It supports our bodies so that we can stand, otherwise we would be a big blob. It lets us have movement so we can run and jump. Our bones also protects our important organs, such as our heart, lungs, and brain, It also helps produce blood cell production through the bone marrow. It also helps with calcium storage and endocrine regulation that help us survive.


Bones- Bones are made up of dense and tough outer layer called the Periosteum. This is followed by the compact bone. The next layer, Cancellous, is spongy and light, and even slightly flexible. The inside, or middle part, of our bones consist of a jelly like bone marrow. This is where new cells are made for blood.


Skull- Composed of 22 bones fused together, except for the mandible (jaw), for strength and protection for the brain. The bones in the upper part of your skull is called the Cranium and protects your brain from damage. With the exception of the mandible, 21 bones are not fused together in children so that there is room the skull and brain to grow. Once an adult, the bones are fused together to provide protection and strength. Bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are also known as facial bones and support the eyes, nose, and mouth.


Hyoid and Auditory Ossicles- The Hyoid is small and U-shaped. It is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with another bone. The Hyoid helps hold the trachea open and form a bony connection for the tongue muscles. The Auditory Ossicles are also known as malleus, incus, and stapes, and the smallest bones in the body. The Auditory Ossicles serves to transmit and amplify sound from the inner eardrum to the inner ear.


Vertebrae- 26 vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body. Each vertebrae is named for the first letter of its region and position along the superior- inferior axis. For example, the most superior thoracic vertebrae is called T1 and the most inferior is called T12.


Teeth- Our teeth are made of dentin and enamel and are part of the skeletal system, but are not counted as bones. They also play a key role important in the digestive system.

MAJOR FUNCTIONS

The skeletal system performs vital functions- support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation- that enable us to survive. Its primary function is to give support to the body by giving it structure and protect our organs as well as anchoring the skeletal muscles. The axial skeleton helps us keep our upright posture and includes the vertebral column, rib cage, and the skull. It works by transmitting weight from the head, the trunk and upper portions down to our lower body at the hip joints. The appendicular skeletons function is to make walking, running and other movement possible and protect our major organs in the lower body such as our stomach and intestines. The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas female's is 100 degrees or more.

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEM

Osteoporosis- This is a prevalent disease, particularly among the elderly, that results in the loss of bone tissue. The bone loses calcium and becomes thinner and may disappear completely.


Arthritis- A group of more than 100 inflammatory diseases that damage joints and their surrounding structures. They can attack the joints, joint capsules, the surrounding tissue, or throughout the body. Usually it affects the joints of the neck, shoulders,


Bone Cancer- A malignancy arising in the bones and supporting structures such as cartilage.


Leukemia- A cancer that primarily affects the blood. The skeletal system is involved because the marrow is part of the bone.


Bursitis- A disorder that most commonly affects the shoulder and the hip joints.

HOW IT WORKS WITH OTHER SYSTEMS

Your skeletal system does not work alone. Muscles connect to your skeleton and they contract and move the skeleton along. Your skeletal system is made up of cartilage and calcified bone that work together. They help the process of movement happen in a smoother manner. The calcified inside of your bones helps produce the cells inside of your blood. Both red blood cells and white blood cells are created in your bones.