Classifying the Colonies

Alex Johnson

Jamestown

  1. 1607: Jamestown became the first permanent British North American colony

  2. Charter of Virginia: guaranteed the colonists of Jamestown equal rights as all British citizens

  3. Captain John Smith: comes to organize and save Jamestown then returns to London with powder burns

  4. The Starving Times: the number of colonists drops from 104 to 38 in one winter and there is documented cannibalism

  5. John Rolfe: known as the Father of Tobacco, he introduced tobacco and the plantation system

  6. 1619: the House of Burgesses is established as the first form of government and a Dutch ship introduces the first slaves

  7. 1624: angry with the settlers, the English King revokes the Virginia Charter which decreases the colonists loyalty to England

  8. Anglo Powhatan Wars: the wars started in 1610 and there was only a brief peace between the first and second war, this marks the colonist's change from viewing the Indians as a helpful resource.

  9. 1646: a piece treaty ends the Anglo Powhatan Wars and establishes the habit of simply removing Indians from wanted land

  10. Headright System: any Virginian got 50 acres of land per indentured servant they brought to the New World


Maryland

  1. Lord Baltimore: in 1634 he established Maryland to gain profits and as a Catholic haven

  2. St. Mary’s: the site on the shore of the Chesapeake where Maryland was started

  3. Proprietary Colony: all the land was owned by one individual (Lord Baltimore) rather than the English King or a Company

  4. Indentured Servants: one step above slaves, these people worked for years to pay off the debt they owed to the wealthy land owners who paid the fare to get the indentured servants to the new world

  5. Protestant Resentment: much of Maryland was strewn with poor Protestants who despised Lord Baltimore

  6. Act of Toleration: guaranteed protection of all Christians to ease the tensions between Catholics and Protestants

  7. Chesapeake Bay: a large and vital inlet of water that provides healthy soil, protection from storms, and tactical advantages in war later

  8. Catholic Population: after not too long a time the Catholics where outnumbered by the restless Protestant population

  9. Feudal System: Lord Baltimore hoped to maintain control or Maryland by offering protection in exchange for some of the products of the wealthy estates throughout Maryland.

  10. Rural: more than any other colony at the time, Maryland consisted of a relatively small number of large estates and plantations owned by very wealthy individuals loyal to Baltimore


Pennsylvania

  1. William Penn: founder of Pennsylvania who brought Quakers to the land

  2. Quakers: deeply religious individuals who opposed the Church of England because they refused to pay taxes and swear to an oath

  3. 1681: the year William Penn finally got the grant of land that is Pennsylvania

  4. Advertising: Pennsylvania was the colony that had the mot advertising in pamphlets and books to gain residents

  5. Indian Relations: the Quakers hated violence so they tried to maintain peace with the Indians

  6. Blue Laws: a series of repressive laws thy banned simple things such as kissing in public

  7. Philadelphia: the largest city in Pennsylvania, a busy trading site for grain

  8. Delaware: under Swedish influence, had its own political assembly but remained under Pennsylvania's control until the American Revolution

  9. “Bread Colony”: many of the middle colonies but mostly Pennsylvania was know for its massive output of grain

  10. Benjamin Franklin: moved to Philadelphia in 1720, discovered electricity along with many other inventions, and became the "most representative American personality" at the time


Massachusetts Bay

  1. Massachusetts Bay Company: a company created by puritans who created a charter and got the grant to start the Bay colony

  2. Puritans: dedicated extremists who sought to fix the imperfections of the Church of England, gave way to Separatists

  3. Boston: the largest port city and the site of first landing by the non-Separatist puritans

  4. 1630: the first Puritans arrived and established the Bay colony

  5. John Winthrop: the first governor of the Bay colony

  6. General Court: a representative elected assembly that governed alongside the governor

  7. John Cotton: a highly influential clergy who enforced the link between church and state and sometimes prayed 6 times a day

  8. Anne Hutchinson: an extremely intelligent theologian who challenged the Puritan idea of predestination and was eventually banished for heresy

  9. Roger Williams: an extreme separatist with an untamed tongue who challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter

  10. Colder Temperature: not as many bugs a diseases could thrive so the life expectancy was notably greater in the north that in the south


Georgia

  1. 1733: Georgia became a royal colony-126 years after Jamestown was founded

  2. Savannah: a large harbor that became a melting pot of people

  3. “Buffer Colony”: the Crown intended Georgia to be a guardian to the more important and richer Carolina's from the vengeful Spanish in Florida

  4. Debtors: Georgia was home to many debtors and others destined to spend their life in jail or start anew in the colonies

  5. View of Slavery: for a long time they tried to keep slavery out of Georgia

  6. James Oglethorpe: a well known and able military leader that saved Georgia and made it a vital resource in the king's eyes

  7. John Wesley: a significant missionary who later returned to England and started the Methodist church

  8. Alcohol: the Georgian people, determined to earn a reputation greater than a haven for debtors, tried to keep alcohol out of the colony

  9. Slow Development: the king didn't support agriculture in this colony as much as other southern colonies, restrictions on slave labor, persistent Spanish attacks, climate was not good

  10. 1752: Philanthropists abandoned Georgia and it became a distinct royal colony