This is a drawing illustrating the Thirty Years War.
The Ottoman Empire's main ruler was the sultan. The role of the sultan was obtained through lineage, meaning it was passed down from father to son. The sultans had a major role in their government. They oversaw the meetings, hired and fired governmental officials, and led the military campaigns. However, one major aspect of the role that was never established was which son would become the next sultan. Sometimes the sultan would have said who he wanted to become the next ruler, but when that wasn't the case, the sons would fight violently, resulting in wars within the empire which led to major destruction to the empire's power. The solution to this problem was the the sons of the sultan would stay at the palace until it was there turn, instead of being governors within the empire. However, this solution was not very effective. Since the sons had stayed inside the palace their whole lives, they knew nothing about the government when they became a sultan. They could not properly carry out their duties. This led to instability within the government. This led to decentralization and a weak government and military. (The Decline of the Ottoman Empire: Part 1 Politics and Economics.)
This is an illustration of Sultan Ahmed 1.
This is an illustration of emperor Akbar.
Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty.