Reform smore

By: Gabriel Penaloza


  • Originally students were taught by their parents out of the bible or learned on a hornbook.
  • New England region had highest literacy rate.
  • The idea that uneducated citizens could ruin the political structure of society scared many republicans into funding public schools.
  • Blacks were forbidden to learn to read and write in the South and rarely in the North.
  • Taxation for Education:
  • Wealthy families funded most public schools.
  • (1825 - 1850) ~ Strong support for tax supported education.
  • Free education was a key symbol in the democracy.
    • Text books promoted patriotism.
  • Teachers were initially ill-trained, ill-tempered, and ill-paid.
    • Taught only the three R’s: Readin’, Ritin’, and Rithmetic.
  • Schools were very inefficient.

Horace mann

Horace Mann was an American politician and education reformer, best known for promoting universal public education and teacher training in "normal schools."

Education reformer Horace Mann was born on May 4, 1796 in Franklin, Massachusetts. Mann served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives and Senate before his appointment as the Massachusetts secretary of education. Mann went on to the U.S. House of Representatives, promoting an agenda of public education and "normal schools" to train teachers

Noah Websters

Noah Webster, Jr., was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education"

Women's rights

Women's Rights Activist (1815–1902)

The American women's rights movement is usually dated from the convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to discuss the "Social, Civil, and Religious Condition of Woman." This meeting gathered activists from a wide range of political and reform concerns: antislavery, Free-Soil party supporters, temperance advocates, and Congregational Friends--a dissident religious group that had recently separated from the Hicksite Quakers. Lucretia Mott the only nationally known woman speaker at the meeting, gained recognition as the convention's moving "spirit." Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted the "Declaration of Sentiments," a document read and revised during the proceedings. This treatise called not only for women's right to vote, but insisted that women be granted "immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States."

Elizabeth cady stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an early leader of the woman's rights movement, writing the Declaration of Sentiments as a call to arms for female equality.

Born on November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an abolitionist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. An eloquent writer, her Declaration of Sentiments was a revolutionary call for women's rights across a variety of spectrums. Stanton was the president of the National Woman Suffrage Association for 20 years and worked closely with Susan B. Anthony.

Mary Lyon

Mary Lyon was an educator and the founder of the first women's college, which is now known as Mount Holyoke College.

Mary Lyon was born on February 28, 1797, in Buckland, Massachusetts. She attended school until she was 13, and got her first job as a teacher while still in her teens. Mary Lyon taught and managed schools in Massachusetts and New Hampshire before establishing Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1837, the first college for women. Lyon died in 1849.


The temperance movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries was an organized effort to encourage moderation in the consumption of intoxicating liquors or press for complete abstinence. The movement's ranks were mostly filled by women who, with their children, had endured the effects of unbridled drinking by many of their menfolk. In fact, alcohol was blamed for many of society's demerits, among them severe health problems, destitution and crime. At first, they used moral suasion to address the problem.

John B Gough

A recovered drunkard himself, John B. Gough began a career lecturing against drinking and alcohol in 1842. During this time lecturing grew as a profession so he was able live off his more than 9,000 lectures and over nine million listeners at them. Most of consisted of Gough speaking about his own personal struggles with alcohol which stemmed from the death of his family, unemployment, and homelessness. Even though he had many relapses with alcohol, he still managed to have a very successful career as a temperance reformist. At the time of his death the New York Times wrote, “[he] was probably better known in this country and in Great Britain than any other public speaker.”
“The Dangers of Moderate Drinking” excerpt written by Gough:

Edward C. Delavan

Delavan was a controversial temperance leader from New York. He retired in his mid-30s as he was very successful in the real estate market. In 1829, two years after his retirement, Delavan became involved in the Temperance Movement and helped in founding the New York State Temperance Society. He believed that the wealthy must give up expensive alcohol and the poor would follow suit by giving up cheap liquors. His beliefs were very radical and he even pushed to outlaw wine drank at church masses. Despite his radical beliefs, Delavan was very successful as a temperance leader and even traveled to England to promote temperance. Most of his accomplishment came from his sponsorship of temperance periodicals and journals that he mass produced and distributed. For his contributions to the movement, towns have been named in his honor in Wisconsin and Illinois.

Extension of democrasy

The rise of political parties as the fundamental organizing unit of the Second (Two) Party System represented a sharp break from the values that had shaped Republican and Federalist political competition. Leaders in the earlier system remained deeply suspicious that parties could corrupt and destroy the young republic. At the heart of the new legitimacy of parties, and their forthright celebration of democracy, was the dramatic expansion of VOTING RIGHTS for white men

Frances Wright

Frances Wright also widely known as Fanny Wright, was a Scottish-born lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist, and social reformer, who became a U. S. citizen in 1825.

James Monroe

James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States. Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation.

Anti slavery Movement

The goal of the abolitionist movement was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. Advocating for immediate emancipation distinguished abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates who argued for gradual emancipation, and from free-soil activists who sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread further west. Radical abolitionism was partly fueled by the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening, which prompted many people to advocate for emancipation on religious grounds. Abolitionist ideas became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics beginning in the 1830s, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War.

Theodore D. Weld

Theodore Dwight Weld, was one of the leading architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years, from 1830 through 1844. Weld played a role as writer, editor, speaker, and organizer.

William Lloyd Garrison

William Lloyd Garrison was an American journalistic crusader who helped lead the successful abolitionist campaign against slavery in the United States.

William Lloyd Garrison was born December 10, 1805 in Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 1830 he started an abolitionist paper, The Liberator. In 1832 he helped form the New England Antislavery Society. When the Civil War broke out, he continued to blast the Constitution as a pro-slavery document. When the civil war ended, he at last saw the abolition of slavery. He died May 24, 1879 in New York City.


The pretty woman who stood before the all-male audience seemed unlikely to provoke controversy. Tiny and timid, she rose to the platform of the Massachusetts Legislature to speak. Those who had underestimated the determination and dedication of DOROTHEA DIX, however, were brought to attention when they heard her say that the sick and insane were "confined in this Commonwealth in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, beaten with rods, lashed into obedience." Thus, her crusade for humane hospitals for the insane, which she began in 1841, was reaching a climax. After touring prisons, workhouses, almshouses, and private homes to gather evidence of appalling abuses, she made her case for state-supported care. Ultimately, she not only helped establish five hospitals in America, but also went to Europe where she successfully pleaded for human rights to Queen Victoria and the Pope


Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876) was born in Boston. He graduated from Brown University in 1821 and from the Harvard Medical School in 1824. After serving as a soldier and doctor in the Greek War of Independence, he returned to Boston in 1831. He married Julia Ward and they had six children.


Dorothea Lynde Dix was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums.