By: Tyler Hegbloom
4 chambers of the heart
Right atrium- Receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava.
Left ventricle- Receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium
Right ventricle- Receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium
4 heart valves
Pulmonary Valve- Lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, and has three cusps.
Major blood vessels of the heart
Aorta- The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation
Pulmonary trunk- Carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries
Conduction system of the heart
Arteries, Veins, and capillaries
- Arteries- Thick tubes normally carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the extremities and organs
- Capillaries- Fine branches of arteries or veins which supply blood to the body's extremities,
- Veins- Thinner tubes normally carrying the deoxygenated blood back to the heart
- In other words:
Arteries: carry blood away from the heart
Veins: carry blood toward to the heart
An ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.
Parts of the ECG
QRS- Much larger wave form compared to the P wave due to the large muscle mass of the ventricles. An initial downwards (negative) deflection in the QRS is termed the Q wave.
T wave- Last portion of the complex, it represents the repolarization of the ventricles.
Normal heart sounds
S1- Isovolumetric contraction, Closure of mitral and tricuspid valves
S2- Isovolumetric relaxation, Closure of aortic and pulmonic valves
S3- Early ventricular filling, Normal in children; in adults, associated with ventricular dilation
S4- Atrial contraction, Associated with stiff, low compliant ventricle
3 blood tests
platelet count- A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help the blood clot. They are smaller than red or white blood cells.
WBC count- A WBC count is a blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs). White blood cells help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes.
There are five major types of white blood cells:
- Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY- LEUKIMIA
Exposure to High Levels of Radiation: Exposure to high-energy radiation (e.g., atomic bomb explosions) and intense exposure to low-energy radiation from electromagnetic fields (e.g., power lines).
Previous Cancer Treatment: Certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers are considered leukemia risk factors.
Genetic Diseases: Certain genetic abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, may play a role in the development of leukemia.
- Chemical Exposure: Long-term exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals like benzene is considered to be a risk for leukemia.
Gender: Men are more likely to develop CML, CLL and AML than women.
Age: The risk of most leukemias, with the exception of ALL, typically increases with age.
Smoking: Although smoking may not be a direct cause of leukemia, smoking cigarettes does increase the risk of developing AML.
Family History: Most leukemias have no familial link. However, first degree relatives of CLL patients, or having an identical twin who has or had AML or ALL, may put you at an increased risk for developing the disease.
Hematocrit test- A patient with leukemia will have a very low score on the hematocrit test due to the low number of red blood cells.
Platelet count- A patient with leukemia will have a very low platelet count due to the low number of white blood cells and their ability to function.