Leukemia

By: Tyler Hegbloom

4 chambers of the heart

Left atrium- Receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins

Right atrium- Receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava.

Left ventricle- Receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium

Right ventricle- Receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium

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4 heart valves

Tricuspid Valve- Three-flapped valve on the right side of the heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle which stops the backflow of blood between the two. It has three cusps.

Mitral valve- It allows the blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle. It is on the left side of the heart and has two cusps.

Aortic Valve- Lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. The aortic valve has three cusps.

Pulmonary Valve- Lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, and has three cusps.


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Pericardium

What it is

The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. There are two tissues called the parietal and the visceral.

Major blood vessels of the heart

Aorta- The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation

Pulmonary arteries-Deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary trunk- Carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary vein- large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

Superior vena cava- Is a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium.

Inferior vena cava- is the large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

Conduction system of the heart

Arteries, Veins, and capillaries

  • Arteries- Thick tubes normally carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the extremities and organs
  • Capillaries- Fine branches of arteries or veins which supply blood to the body's extremities,
  • Veins- Thinner tubes normally carrying the deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  • In other words:

Arteries: carry blood away from the heart

Veins: carry blood toward to the heart

ECG

ECG or electrocardiography is a trans-thoracic across the thorax or chest interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body.


An ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.

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Parts of the ECG

P wave- The first line in the process, it is also the first step in figuring out the rhythm.


QRS- Much larger wave form compared to the P wave due to the large muscle mass of the ventricles. An initial downwards (negative) deflection in the QRS is termed the Q wave.

T wave- Last portion of the complex, it represents the repolarization of the ventricles.

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.


The five factors that influence blood pressure are:

1. Blood Volume

2. Strength of Heart Contractions

3. Heart Rate

4. Blood Viscosity

5. Resistance to Blood Flow

Cardiac Cycle

The cardiac cycle is a term referring to all or any of the events related to the flow or blood pressure that occurs from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.
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Stroke Volume

The volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat.



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Pulse

A rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is propelled through them.
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Normal heart sounds

S1- Isovolumetric contraction, Closure of mitral and tricuspid valves


S2- Isovolumetric relaxation, Closure of aortic and pulmonic valves


S3- Early ventricular filling, Normal in children; in adults, associated with ventricular dilation


S4- Atrial contraction, Associated with stiff, low compliant ventricle


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3 blood tests

Hematocrit test- Blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells.


platelet count- A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help the blood clot. They are smaller than red or white blood cells.


WBC count- A WBC count is a blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs). White blood cells help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes.


There are five major types of white blood cells:

  • Basophils
  • Eosinophils
  • Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
  • Monocytes
  • Neutrophils

INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY- LEUKIMIA

Possible causes

  • Exposure to High Levels of Radiation: Exposure to high-energy radiation (e.g., atomic bomb explosions) and intense exposure to low-energy radiation from electromagnetic fields (e.g., power lines).

  • Previous Cancer Treatment: Certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers are considered leukemia risk factors.

  • Genetic Diseases: Certain genetic abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, may play a role in the development of leukemia.

  • Chemical Exposure: Long-term exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals like benzene is considered to be a risk for leukemia.
  • Gender: Men are more likely to develop CML, CLL and AML than women.

  • Age: The risk of most leukemias, with the exception of ALL, typically increases with age.

  • Smoking: Although smoking may not be a direct cause of leukemia, smoking cigarettes does increase the risk of developing AML.

  • Family History: Most leukemias have no familial link. However, first degree relatives of CLL patients, or having an identical twin who has or had AML or ALL, may put you at an increased risk for developing the disease.

ECG

A patient with leukemia will have an irregular heartbeat at times which will sometimes effect the ECG results.

Pulse

A patient with leukemia will have a different pulse depending on what stage their leukemia is at. Their pulse will either be normal, or very slow.
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Blood Pressure

A patient who has leukemia will have a very high blood pressure due to the strength of the heart contractions.

Stroke volume

A patient with leukemia will see either none or significant change in the stroke volume depending on what stage the leukemia is at. The heart will either pump the same amount of blood or it will pump a significantly less amount of blood.
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Cardiac Output

A patient with leukemia will have an irregular heartbeat at times which will cause less blood to be pumped into the heart, resulting in changes in the cardiac output. It will most likely be much higher.

Heart Sounds

A patient with leukemia will have irregular heart sounds at times depending on what stage their leukemia is in. Another possible outcome could be that the heart sounds sound the same as they did before.
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Blood Tests

WBC count- Most patients with leukemia have WBC elevated up to 100,000, the total WBC count might also be in the normal range or lower.


Hematocrit test- A patient with leukemia will have a very low score on the hematocrit test due to the low number of red blood cells.


Platelet count- A patient with leukemia will have a very low platelet count due to the low number of white blood cells and their ability to function.


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Possible solutions

  • Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to destroy cancer cells or stop them from growing. Typically, some form of chemotherapy will be part of the treatment plan for all patients with ALL.
  • Radiation therapy: Children who have signs of disease in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or have a high risk of the disease spreading to this area may receive radiation therapy to the brain. This type of therapy is not common.
  • Bone marrow or cord blood transplant (also called a BMT): This is used for patients who are less likely to go in to remission with chemotherapy, as transplants can have serious risks.
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