- A universal spirit called Brahman created the universe and everything in it.
- Every person has a soul or Atman that will eventually join with Brahman.
- People's souls are reincarnated many times before they can join with Brahman.
- A persons Karma affects how he or she will be reincarnated.
- The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
- There are 4 Vedas, each containing sacred hymns and poems.
- If you did good in life, when you die you will be reborn in the next life into a higher Caste until you reach peace or Nirvana.
- There are 4 different stages of the Castesystem
- Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life.
- Suffering comes from desires for pleasure and material goods.
- People can overcome their desires and ignorance and reach nirvana, a state of perfect place.
- People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an eight fold path that leads to wisdom, enlightments, and salvation.
- Developed in India 2500 years ago.
- Based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.
- Points to a way of life that avoids self indulgence and self denial.
- No supreme god or deity in Buddhism.
- Siddhartha Gautama was the founder of Buddhism.
- Siddhartha Gautama was born in Nepal India.
- At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.
- He became the Enlightened one at age 35.
- The fundamental cause of all suffering is desire. Therefore, extinguish the self, don't obsess about oneself.
- Nirvana is the term for a state of perfect peace.
- To reach Nirvana one must follow the eightfold path.
The eightfold path consists of : Right understanding, right speech, right livelihood, right concentration, right mindfulness, right effort, right action, and right intention.
- In the Buddhist tradition, Karma refers to action driven by intention (cetana) which leads to future consequences.
- Shintoism is a polytheistic belief that expresses love and respect for nature.
- Shintoism celebrates life and the beauty of nature.
- Shintoist worship Kami
- Kami is a general term for Shinto deities and spirits.
- Kami can also be forces of nature, important people, or even natural objects.
- The emperor of Japan was considered a Kami.
- Shintoism has no:
- Identifiable founder
- body of religious laws
- written scriptures or holy text
- a very loosely organized priesthood
- The family is seen as the main force for traditions to be preserved. Main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
- Confucius was an exceptional student who later became a teacher and a government official.
- He was born in 551 B.C. and died in 479 B.C. l
- Confucianism is a system of social and ethical philosophy- not a religion.
- Confucius’s solutions centered on human relationships and drew from the sages of ancient times.
Ren is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
Jen: human heartedness; goodness; man-to-man-ness.
Budaism and Shintoism Compare
- Place of origin------Japan
- Place of worship-------Shrines.
- Concept of Deity Numerous deities--------The sun is one of the most important ones(they believe that the sun is a goddess).
- Belief of God---- Numerous deities.
- Belief------Shinto is both a religion and way of life of Japan. Numerous kami (gods/goddesses/spirits).
- Goal of religion------ To serve the Shinto deities, or Kami, as they are known.Concept of God Numerous deities.
- View of Oriental religions-------- Although Shinto became organized, in order to prevent being overtaken by Buddhism or any other religion, it sees no contradiction in belonging to any other religion.
- Literal Meaning----------- The Way of the gods.
- Status of women-------- Women may become priestesses. But are still seen as less than men
- Scriptures---Kojiki, Nihon Shoki
- View of the Buddha-----------Buddha is followed by many Shintoists.
Founder No founder.
- Geographical distribution and predominance----------Shinto has influenced Japan for several millenia, with the height appearing before World War 2
- Original Language------------ Japanese
- Means of salvation------------ By serving the Kami.
Hinduism and Shintoism compare
Life after death- A constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment is reached.
Place of origin- Indian Subcontinent
Place of worship -Temple (Mandir)
Practices- Meditation, yoga, contemplation, yagna (communal worship), offerings in the temple.
Use of statues and pictures-Common
Day of worship- Orthodox schools prescribe three prayer times a day: at dawn, noon and dusk.
Clergy- No official clergy. Gurus, Yogis, Rishis, Brahmins, Pundits, priests, priestesses, monks, and nuns.
Definition -The word Hindu has geographical significance and was used originally for those people who lived beyond the river Sindhu or the region watered by the river Indus. Hindus themselves, call their religion "Sanatana Dharma, " meaning "Eternal Law."
Principle To follow -dharma, i.e. eternal laws
Belief -Diverse beliefs depending on sects.
Prophets- No prophets, but Rishis could be considered equivalent in Vedic times.
View of Oriental- religions Buddhism and Jainism were considered atheistic religions by traditional Hindu schools. Buddhists do not consider Buddha an avatar of Vishnu and believe that Hindu priests made that claim to stem the spread of Buddhism, which threatened Hinduism.
Abrahamic Lineage N/A.
Position of Abraham N/A.
Founder Not credited to a particular founder.
Goal of religion To break the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation, and attain salvation.
CONFUCIANISM AND SHINTOISM COMPARE AND CONTRAST
- Place of origin --
- Place of worship--
Visit to temples to pay homage to Ti'en(God or Heaven), Confucius, and ancestors; To practice ('Jing zuo, ') or 'Quiet Sitting
Visit to shrines to pay homage to Shinto deities; Shamanism, etc.
- Life after death--
To be worshipped as ancestors.
- Goal of religion--
To have a structured society.
To serve the Shinto deities, or Kami, as they are known.
Confucianism is both a religion and a philosophy of China, and of Asia as a whole. It stresses human conduct over belief in God.
Shinto is both a religion and way of life of Japan. Numerous kami (gods/goddesses/spirits).
- Concept of God--
- Use of statues and pictures--
Kong Qiu (Confucius)
Priests, miko, etc.
- Status of women--
Socially inferior to men.
Women may become priestesses. But are still seen as less than men
Analects of Confucius and Mencius; I Ching; Doctrine of Mean, etc.
Kojiki, Nihon Shoki
- Belief of God--
One God. Ancestors also worshipped, though.
- Literal Meaning--
Disciple of Confucius.
The Way of the gods.
- Concept of Deity--
Most believe in One God.
Numerous deities. The sun is one of the most important ones(they believe that the sun is a goddess).
- View of the Buddha--
Buddha is followed by many Confucians.
Buddha is followed by many Shintoists.
- Original Language(s)--
Mandarin or Cantonese
Confucianism all about the brotherhood of humanity.
The essence of Shinto is the Japanese devotion to invisible spiritual beings and powers called kami, to shrines, and to various rituals.
- Geographical distribution and predominance--
Shinto has influenced Japan for several millenia, with the height appearing before World War 2
- View of Oriental religions--
Confucianists usually follow other Oriental religions too.
Although Shinto became organized, in order to prevent being overtaken by Buddhism or any other religion, it sees no contradiction in belonging to any other religion.
- Original Languages--
Mandarin or Cantonese
- Time of origin--
Approx. 550 B.C.E.(Before Common Era)
Approx. 700 B.C.
- Holy days/Official Holidays--
Chinese New Year, Teacher Day, Ancestor Day.
The Japanese national holidays, as well as local shrine festivals (matsuri).
- Offshoot religions--
Tenrikyo, other Japanese sects.
- Can atheists partake in this religion's practices?--
- Virtue(s) in which religion is based-- upon
Cleanliness/ Purity, Respect.
- Use of statues, images--
Han Confucianism; Neo Confucianism; Contemporary Confucianism; Japanese Confucianism; Korean Confucianism; Vietnamese Confucianism; Boston Confucianism.
State Shinto, Religious Shinto, and Folk Shinto.
- Views on other religions--
Confucianists see no contradiction in following more than one religion.
Shintoists usually follow Buddhism or another religion too.
BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM COMPARE AND CONTRAST
· Life after death
· Life after death
Until one has attained Nirvana, he or she will be reborn into any of the 31 planes of existence over and over again, due to his/her karma.
A constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment is reached.
· Place of origin
· Place of worship
Monasteries, nunneries, pagodas and temples.
Practices of the Threefold Training: Morality, Concentration, and Wisdom.
Meditation, yoga, contemplation, yagna (communal worship), offerings in the temple.
· Use of statues and pictures
· Religious Law
The Buddha's teachings, the Dharma.
· Belief of God
Buddhism does not believe in a Creator God.
Many gods, but realize that they all come from Atman.
Following the teachings of the Buddha
Devotion to the various gods & goddesses of Hinduism.
· Means of salvation
Buddhism has nothing to do with "salvation". The only goal in Buddhism is to attain Nirvana. To do this, we should let go of our desires, cravings and attachments, and try to dispel our ignorance
Reaching enlightenment by the Path of Knowledge, the Path of devotion, or the Path of Good Deeds.
Monks and Nuns, who unitedly and exactly follow the teachings of the Buddha under the name 'Sangha'.
No official clergy. Gurus, Yogis, Rishis, Brahmins, Pundits, priests, priestesses, monks, and nuns.
· Day of worship
Instead of worshipping, Buddhists pay obeisance to the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha.
Orthodox schools prescribe three prayer times a day: at dawn, noon and dusk.
Teachings of the Buddha
The word Hindu has geographical significance and was used originally for those people who lived beyond the river Sindhu or the region watered by the river Indus. Hindus themselves, call their religion "Sanatana Dharma, " meaning "Eternal Law."
This life is suffering, and the only way to escape from this suffering is to dispel one's cravings and ignorance by practising the Eightfold Path.
To follow dharma, i.e. eternal laws
· Concept of God
A God or gods have always been rejected wholly by Theravada Buddhists. Their only refuges are the three jewels: The Buddha, The Dhamma, and The Sangha.
God is in everything and everything is God.
No angels accepted.
The concept of angels does not apply in Hinduism. Some mythological stories include rishis, who sometimes serve as the messengers of God.
The Buddha was the teacher to show us the four noble truths and the eightfold path (the path to nirvana or the way to enlightenment).
Diverse beliefs depending on sects.
No prophets accepted in Theravada Buddhism.
No prophets, but Rishis could be considered equivalent in Vedic times. Avataras of Vedic God are different from human reincarnations, but could be considered equivalent toChristian idea of God in flesh.
ALL IN COMMON
- none have headquarters
- They all have the something in common from the eight fold path, which is Buddhist teaching of the means of attaining Nirvana through rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.
- For example they all have right action which means to to the the right thing and be good. Also they have right mindfulness which means accepting awareness of your inner and outer world.
- Shinto coexists with Buddhism and Confucianism and their ethical values.
- Each encourages moral behavior, charity and respect for the universe.
- Buddhism: Buddhist teaching of the means of attaining Nirvana through rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation
- Hinduism: A person must live a good life and practice kindness and charity in order to attain the ultimate reward.
- Confucianism: Politeness, virtue, righteousness, propriety and moral wisdom are essential components of a good person.
- Shintoism: Shinto ethics start from the basic idea that human beings are good, and that the world is good.
- ALL originated in Asia.