Acids and Bases

Brandon Easter and Patrick Mock II

Acids

The term Lewis Acid refers to a definition of acid published by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1923, specifically: An acid substance is one which can employ an electron lone pair from another molecule in completing the stable group of one of its own atoms. A weak acid is an acid which partially ionises when dissolved in water to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions.
A strong acid is an acid which ionises almost completely when dissolved in water to produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions. An acid has an irritating smell and tastes sour. A chemical property is that an acid will react with a base to produce a salt and water. Acids also have hydrogen atoms that causes an acid's dissolving power.

Reactions

When an acid and a base are placed together, they react to neutralize the acid and base properties, producing a salt. The H(+) cation of the acid combines with the OH(-) anion of the base to form water. The compound formed by the cation of the base and the anion of the acid is called a salt

Bases

Bases are substances which produce hydroxide ions in solution. A strong base is a base that dissociates completely into a metal ion and hydroxide ion in aqueous solution. A weak base is a base that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solution.

Measurements

  • On a scale of 1-14 measuring the concentrations of Ph and POh
  • The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.

Indicators

An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. 3 examples of indicators are cresol read, nitramine, and thymol blue. Your house and garden are 2 examples of common products that can be used as an indicator.The indicators change color because the chemicals in the indicator and the chemicals of the reactor are reacting with each other creating new chemicals that has a color.

Acid Rain

The primary cause of 'acid rain,' more accurately called acid deposition, is air pollution from burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use does not directly emit acids into the atmosphere. Instead, it releases large amounts of acid precursors, primarily sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When exposed to the atmosphere, these react with water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid, components of acid deposition. Acid rain can also have a damaging effect on many objects, including buildings, statues, monuments, and cars. The chemicals found in acid rain can cause paint to peel and stone statues to begin to appear old and worn down, which reduces their value and beauty.
Acid Base Introduction