By: Emily C, Sydney R, Walker C, Sri V, Ibrahim O

Overview of Australia

Australia is one of the most unique places in the world,there is a great blend of cultural diversity and Australia is a country, and continent, surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Its major cities – Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide – are coastal, but its capital, Canberra, is inland and nicknamed the "Bush Capital." The country is known for its Sydney Opera House, Great Barrier Reef, the vast Outback (interior desert wilderness) and unique animal species including kangaroos and duck-billed platypuses.

Ibrahim Oyebanji

Author's Bio

Roy MacGregor has been involved in hockey all his life. Growing up in Huntsville, Ontario, he competed for several years against a kid named Bobby Orr, who was playing in nearby Parry Sound. He later returned to the game when he and his family settled in Ottawa, where he worked for the Ottawa Citizen and became the Southam National Sports Columnist. He still plays old timers hockey and was a minor-hockey coach for more than a decade. He went to Australia when he was making this book to learn the culture and how they live their life. While he was there he played different Australian sports like hockey.

Language is a way of communication. Language can either be spoken or written. Langugage is very different based on were you are from. People speak different languages because on their culture. People also use different slangs when they talk. The slangs they use in Australia is way different than the ones they use in America. In Australia people say "mate" and in America people say "buddy" or "friend". In the good Death Down Under by Roy MacGregor, the author does a good job of showing the different slag they use.

"Drop Dead!" (MacGregor 1). The word a "Drop dead" together means to die all of a sudden. In the book a character said that when he/she was angry. That shows what people in Australia say when they are feeling mad or angry.


A norm is a pattern of behavior that is typically expected. Norms are basically manners, a rational way of behaving. Norms are also different all around the world. Norms change based on your culture and were your from. In different places in the world, it's disrespectful to give someone a handshake but in America, it's considered polite. Looking someone in the eyes can be taken as a challenge of authority in someplace so but in other places it's rude not to make eye contact.

"'I'm not climbing anywhere except for out of this stupid boat'" (MacGregor 8). His behavior was only like that because he was tired and he was talking to his friend.


Values is a person's principal or standard of behavior. People have different values based on their culture. In the book, Death Down Under by Roy MacGregor, values is showed through culture.

"They noticed the thief stealing their stuff" (MacGregor 68). Stealing is wrong in Australia and they are strong consequences for it.


Symbols is anything that can represent or stand for anything else. A symbol can even be a color as long as their is some type of meaning to it. In the book, Death Down Under by Roy MacGregor, there were lots of symbols in the book.

"We call 'er The Coathanger mates" (MacGregor 8). The Coathabger was like a mountain or a really high land.

Sri Vemugunta

Culture in Outback Reconing
Written by R. P. Bonasso

Author Bio
R. P. Bonasso was born in Frankfurt, Germany to an Army Major and his wife. He was appointed to the US Military Academy at West Point, NY because his father delivered flowers to an Senator. After tours in Germany and Vietnam, he graduated school at Stanford University and had several automatic data processing posts in the Army, once he got out, he started taking computer jobs, finally landing at a job for NASA at Johnson Space Center, programming space robots. R.P Bonasso is connected with Australia's culture because he read a bunch of books and did research on Australia. Bonasso learned Australian culture, and pretty much knew how it would be like to live there. He also learned aboriginals symbols and languages.

English is the national language and is taught in all schools. Colloquialisms and idioms make Australian English distinct from English spoken elsewhere. Australia is increasingly becoming a multicultural society, and it is quite common to see immigrants from a vast number of countries, particularly from Asia. As a result, there are many first-generation Australians who are conversant in two languages—Australian English and the tongue of their parents. Aboriginal peoples once had more than 250 languages, but only about 20 are currently being taught to children. There is now an effort to place more emphasis on Aboriginal languages.

Language in outback reckoning
The main character in Outback Reckoning says the phrase "okay wank"( Bonasso 21). This is example of Australian English. We in the U.S.A would not say that phrase. In Australia it means somebody that thinks their cool but their really not.

The commonly held standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable, etc., in a community or society

Example of values in Outback Reckoning
An example of values in The book is "Rachel recognized the kidnapper"(Bonasso 35). This is an example of values because kidnapping is wrong in the Australian Culture. You go to jail and get punished for kidnapping.

What are symbols
Symbols are things that mean or represent other things than they really are. For Example The US flag, the US flag represents freedom and everything great about America.

Example of Symbols in Outback Reckoning
" The spirit of Suralu, lives in you Rachel"(Bonasso 42). I think this is a symbol because Suralu is supposed to be the great one, the savior. Hence her being called that after she saves kids. In the book Suralu is also used to represent how great she is.

What do norms mean
Norms are the normal way of life. For example most Americans go to church. It is pretty much being just like everyone else.

Examples of norms in outback Reckoning
An example of norm in my book is "he took another drab and sat back down" (Bonasso 115). I think this an example because a bunch of people smoke in Australia and it's a norm to smoke a lot of people do it and most people don't judge.

Emily Crisp

No Turning Back By: Joanne Lees

Author Bio

Joanne Lees, the author of No Turning Back, had all the same values and norms that an ordinary Australians had. She loved her family and friends she went to work everyday and church every Sunday. She had a ordinary life until she was almost raped and murdered and the love of her life Pete was murdered. Now she values new things she wants justice she wants the public to know their story. She still believes in God she still works but now she has new priorities and a new perspective on life and death. Now she isn't scared and as shy. She thinks his murder happened for a reason and she is making the most out of it and the investigation. She took this experience in the best way she could even though she lost everything, she gained new friends and new strengths that she values and she wouldn't change anything, she realized that people are born and die everyday and no one can change that.

Norms Research

In Australia, Australians always greet people by shaking there hands and saying good morning or good afternoon. When younger people (like children) are meetings adults they always say Mr. Mrs. Ms. or Miss. If friends are meeting they usually hug or make jokes. Australians also respect their friends and family they don't know what they would do without them. The australians norms are much like Americans

Norms Book

In my novel No Turning Back by: Joanne Lees she represents norms by talking about how much she loves her family and how she wants to get to know Pete's. She also talks very polite to the people that she meets along the way on her trips which, she ends up becoming very close friends and starts traveling with them. For example "They were very friendly and invited me to stay with them when i reached Australia." (Lees 7). She respected people along the way back to Australia and by that she gained close friendships which are very important to her.

Language Research

English is the national language for Australia. English is taught in all schools. Idioms make Australian English different from English spoken elsewhere. For example, Spot on means “Right on.” A prang is a “problem.” If someone is sick, he or she is crook. Friends may refer to each other as mate. Also australians shorten words for everyday conversation like kindy (kindergarten), telly (television), footy (football) and mum (mom).

Language Book

In the novel No Turning Back by Joanne Lees there are many examples of the Australian Language. She uses the word mate she also uses mum in the novel. For example "My mum was everything to me and we were a team" (Lees 1). She was referring to how grateful she is for her mum always being there for her even thought her father wasn't.

Values Research

Australia's value equality, freedom and respect. They believe that everyone deserves a chance to be equal no matter their gender, race, background ect. They also think that everyone needs freedom, freedom of speech and freedom of religion. They also value respect and self-respect a lot. If you don't respect yourself no one else will & you also need to respect others for them to respect you.

Values Book

In my novel Joanne values herself she has a lot of self-respect also she knows what she wants and she is confident and motivated to do whats right for herself. She said "I was a grown woman capable of making decisions and making my own choices" (Lees 31). She knows how to do wants right for herself so she doesn't want other people to make choices for her.

Symbols Research

Some symbols that represent Australia is the Australian flag. The flag was created September 1, 1901. The flag includes the Southern Cross, Union Flag and Commonwealth Star. Another symbol would be the National Colors which are green and gold. The green and gold represents the national team colors.

Symbols Book

In my novel one of the main symbols is the Sydney Australia courthouse.This is one of the main ones because thats were Joanne spent most of her time after Petes murder."On Monday the 17th of October the trial began at the Darwin Supreme Court" (Lees 112). She spent months and months in that courthouse trying to investigate who murder her husband.

Walker Cain

Authors Bio

Peter Carey, the author of 30 days in Sydney. He was born, and lived in Australia whenever he was a kid, then he moved the New York and started a new life as a writer in the US. After 17 years of living in the United States he goes back to Australia for the 2000s Olympic Games in Sydney, to revisit and see how the place that he grew up has changed.


In Australia, although they speak english like we do, they have a different dialect then we do in America. It's just like our English and English from Britain, it derived from the same place over time has changed.

A small example is that in America we would say a horn honked, in Australia they would say "a horn hooted" which might sound weird to our ears (Carey 14).


In Australian culture they have many different values than we do. One example is that they value their native history and what state the country was at before the settlers came from England much more than we do.

"700,000 aboriginals living off this country when white people first arrived. Today there are 400,000 (in a population of 18 million)" this statistic is sad because the people first came to colonize Australia, they did not care about the natives or their way of life at all. And now the amount of natives in the population is a small fraction (Carey 51).


Every culture has different norms and ways of life, whether it's and indigenous tribe in South America and Europe or America and Australia. Although America and Australia are very similar countries, stage 6 MDCs, which are more developed countries.

"Of course they were not offended by this style of greeting" this shows that even in developed countries like the USA and Australia, there are still many differences in the norms and greetings that the two countries have (Carey 7).


For the symbols in the Australian culture you might thing of a kangaroo or the great barrier reef, those are the natural ones. But there are many other ones like their accents, their looks, and their geography.

"I saw the opera house and the harbor bridge" thees two structures are probably the most recognized pieces of Sydney, but Australia.

Sydney Reynolds

Author Bio

Jaclyn Moriarty,the author of the year of secret assignments was born and raised in Sydney Australia where she got all of her ideas from her best friend's mom that was an author.From living in Australia her whole life it has shaped the book to show a blend of elements.The first book she wrote was based off of her getting into a fist fight in 5th grade with the boy she liked.,she did always want to be a author it was her life goal to become a flight attendant

Language (Research)

Australia's language statistics show the proportion of the population who speak a language at home other than English. They indicate how culturally diverse a population is and the degree to which different ethnic groups and nationalities are retaining their language.Australia's main language is English but has over 250 languages alone but most of them Are not aboriginal, ones

Language (book)

No official language has been pronounced in Australia but the words they use are similar yet different for example "when did you and mum meet and how and where"(moraity,24).


The norms of Australia are just common sense things like when meeting someone it is respectful to shake their hand or never show up late to events,most Australians are independent people so you won't see much interaction with each other if you travel there.

Norms (book)

Shaking hands and eye contact are just some common sense things you do when meeting or talking to people,when Charlie and Sebastian first meet in person both were very judge mental of each other."wow I never knew how big your forehead was or how blue your eyes are"(morality 127).

Symbols (research)

Australia's national symbols represent what is unique about the nation, reflecting different aspects of our cultural life and history.the nation anthem provides information on the symbolism and history of the Australian National Anthem,also includes information on the protocols.The national flag

Symbols (book)

symbols play a big role in shaping what Australia stands for and how it was created,the national anthem represents loyalty and faith."loyalty is the best kind of friendship you can find,but when they betray you it feels like your whole world is upside down"(Morality 79) loyalty is key to having a good friendship and when that is broken your left with only trust.

Values (research)

Australian society values respect for the freedom and dignity of the individual, freedom of religion, commitment to the rule of law, Parliamentary democracy, equality of men and women and a spirit of egalitarianism that embraces mutual respect, tolerance, fair play and compassion for those in need and pursuit of the public good

Values (book)

Just like many people Australians value the import things in life like friends family and so much more. In the book Emily and her friends don't just value writing to each other everyday but what they love is getting to Learn secrets and stories no one else gets to know."you don't always have to be so rude you know,I have always been there for you"(morality 25).This quote represents the value of friendship and how being pen pal buddies can be fun yet still cause problems between one another.