Carbon Sequestration

By: Jasmine Chauhan

What Is Carbon Sequestration?

  • Also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS)
  • Capturing carbon dioxide emissions
  • Storing it someplace safe away from the atmosphere
What is Carbon Sequestration?

Why Is Carbon Sequestration Important?

  • Earth's health is deteriorating as a result of human activities (predominantly combustion of fossil fuels for the purpose of energy generation) that increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
  • Traps heat > Global Warming > Climate Change
  • Global warming brings drastic changes: rising sea levels, increase in severe weather/natural disasters, Arctic ice melt, and disturbances to agriculture and ecosystems
  • CCS can prevent the effects from worsening
  • Has potential to decrease emissions from industries and power plants by 90%
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Flaws with Current Methods

  • Expensive, not feasible
  • Not a long-term solution due to unreliability and risks of leaks
  • Extended transportation to storage sites
  • Overall lack of efficiency
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Goals, Research & Development, Obstacles, Benefits

Obstacles

  • Lack of investment/funding
  • Inadequate regulations (more regulations necessary in order to put carbon sequestration into full effect)
  • Lack of emission limiting policies
  • Not many policies put a price on carbon
  • Few appealing and persuasive investment incentives

Challenge Goals

  • Get investments for R&D
  • Develop a long term method that is economical, efficient, and safe.
  • Clarify/add more regulations in order to make investors more confident towards the cause
  • Deploy CCS machinery and put methods into action
  • Have 38 energy and 82 industrial CCS projects in effect by 2020 in order to limit temperature rises by 2050.
  • Create more policies that limit emissions and put a price on carbon to make CCS a more appealing option to companies and political leaders.
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Current Research (Worldwide)

  • Carbon sequestration dynamics (the way atmospheric CO₂/the carbon cycle cooperates with the carbon sequestration efforts made by humans) are being studied because they cause dramatic changes to each other
  • This helps to predict what carbon conditions in the atmosphere will be like in the future
  • Research is being done to assess the storage capacity and permeability of geological structures to assure it's reliability and efficiency
  • Enhanced oil recovery is being explored as an option to store CO₂ at oil and gas reservoirs
  • Tests are being conducted on coal beds to better understand how they can be used to store CO₂ since injecting it can remove the methane and be absorbed twice as well into the bed
  • The safety and environmental effects of storing CO₂ in saline formations are being researched as it does appear as a favorable option
  • ^ can store over 12,000 billion tonnes of CO₂
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Current R&D (North Carolina)

  • Living shorelines like Pivers Island, NC that were made out of salt marsh plants to control erosion on the coast have also been discovered to have carbon storing capabilities
  • ^ Known as blue carbon, carbon sequestered by the coastal and aquatic ecosystems
  • Concrete industry carbon emissions make up 5% of the global total
  • Two concrete manufacturing companies in North Carolina have adapted CarbonCure technology
  • CarbonCure tech captures carbon from smokestacks and mixes them into the concrete where it solidifies into a calcium carbonate mineral
  • In 2014 alone, this technology kept 20% of carbon dioxide from reaching the atmosphere
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Benefits

  • We can continue to use our normal energy sources (fossil fuels) without inducing as much harm
  • Projected to limit the temperature raise by 3.6° F by 2050
  • Minimize the effects of global warming
What happens if we do nothing?

CLICK ABOVE TO FIND OUT!