There are two different groups that you can separate the parts of a computer, iPhone, android, i pad, tablets, macs e.t.c into.Input devices and output devices. Input devices is stuff that you use to put info in such as keyboards, cameras, mouse and many others. Output device are things that show stuff the most common being the screen, the monitor anytyhing that lights up among others. The only exception nowadays is something that's on i pads and most tablets and most phones as well a touch screen which both inputs stuff and out puts it.



The mother board is the bran of the computer located in the system unit here are a few parts:
the CPU: this is the central processing almost all information passes through this and it is cooled by fans
the RAM: the random access memory is where almost everything is stored
internal hard drives: the place where the rest of the information is stored
north bridge and south bridge: the way anything gets out of a mother board
ROM: this is the read only memory. the things that you cannot chabnge are stored in this bit nowadays it is a lot smaller than RAM
Optical drive: the place which scans CD'S,DVDS,externals hard drives e.t.c.