IPS- Chapter 4

{4.4- Acidification Lab}

4.9 Acid Rain & Global Warming

  • Sulfur Dioxide; CO2; Hydrogen Chloride- Created on Acidic Solution
  • Carbonic Acid --> dissolved CO2
  • Sulfur Dioxide --> 'acid rain'

(ex: volcanoes, industrial problems) (kill forest- pollute water, river, lake, pond)

Limestone & Sinkholes


  • porous: hold water
  • soft
  • soluble in water (carbonic acid)

Florida Sinkholes

  • lost of limestone
  • water (aquifer)
  • once covered with ocean, soft calcium

Sulfric Acid

  • Discovered in the 8th century by Alchemist (Alchemy) --> chemistry


  • lead acid batteries (cars)
  • fertilizers
  • steel industry (prevent rust corrosion)
  • dried fruit production (hydrotropic- absorbs water)

Two Gases Lab :)

Two Gases

magnesium carbonate + acid

  • dense gas sinks
  • (upright) filled with CO2 = gas can't escape
  • (inverted) filled with air = gas can escapes

magnesium + acid

  • hydrogen (H) light gas rise
  • (upright) filled with air = gas escapes
  • (inverted) filled with hydrogen = gas can't escape
  • flammable gas escaping


  • gas is ignited and rushes out of test tube against glass --> causes friction

Experimental Errors

  • not waiting 30 seconds
  • unstopper before inverting
  • breaking surface of water with test tube
  • don't collect full tube of gas
  • air bubble in the test tube
  • stopper not tight
  • not keep test tubes vertical

Mr. Leed's Experiment:

  • Magnesium Carbonate + Sulfuric Acid= CO2
  • CO2 is MORE dense than air
  • Therefore, CO2 stays in the upright test tube and leaves in the inverted test tube
  • CO2 isn't flammable
  • Therefore, the flame stick burns out fast in upright test tube and stays lit in the inverted test tube (because classroom air has replaced CO2)

My Experiment:

  • Magnesium + Sulfuric Acid= Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen is LESS dense than air
  • Therefore, hydrogen leaves the upright test tube and stays in the inverted test tube
  • Hydrogen is flammable
  • Therefore, the flame stick stays lit (because of air) in the upright test tube and pops in the inverted test tube (because hydrogen is less dense, so it doesn't fill with class room air, so it hasn't been replaced)

Acidification Lab :)


  • Phenol red changes color as you add CO2 into water
  • the CO2 turns to carbonic acid lowering the 'ph' of the water (b/c the carbonic acid lowers ph and dissolves calcium faster)
  • calcium tablet is more soluble in cup with straw


  • not enough phenol red
  • don't blow carbon dioxide
  • lose water when using straw

Ocean Acidification

  • ocean's 'ph' has decreased to 0.2 (about 2.5%)
  • lower 'ph' will cause shelled animals (shrimp, mollusks, etc.) to not be able to build a shell
  • normal 'ph' of the ocean is 8 to 8.4