Water Frame

Tionna Ellis

Who is the inventor?

Arkwright, Sir Richard (1732-1792) British inventor and manufacturer. Born December 23, 1732 in Preston. He was knighted 1786 and died a wealthy man August 3, 1792

How does the invention work

In 1769 he patented a spinning machine which was called the Water Frame because water powered it. Sets of rollers turning at different speeds drew cotton from the carding machine which straughtened out the fibers. Spindles then twisted the cotton into thread. The water frame made hard, firm, and rather coarse thread.

What is the purpose of the invention

Produce stronger yarn by drawing the cotton fibers apart further and more evenly. The cotton was pulled through a set of eight rollers arranged in four pairs. In each pair, the top roller was covered in leather, a material that easily gripped the rough cotton. The bottom ollers were made of either wood or metal, and had flutes scoop-bottomed grooves cut into them that allowed the cotton fibers to pass through. The first set of rollers was designed to turn slowly, while each successive pair turned slightly faster; this pulled the fibers further and further apart, producing a roving that was even and free of lumps. As the cotton emerged from the final set of rollers it was twisted tightly into a strong yarn.

Biboraphy

MLA:




Hirsh, Richard F.
"Arkwright, Sir Richard." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2014.

Web.
30 Jan. 2014.




Arkwright's Water Frame, C 1775.. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 13 Feb 2014. http://quest.eb.com/images/102_548553




"Water frame." World of Invention. Gale, 2006. Student Resources in Context. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.



Document URL



http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV1647500867&v=2.1&u=copp00443&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=b80885943386dcd14d25cb63aabb6669



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"Water frame." World of Invention. Gale, 2006. Student Resources in Context. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.



Document URL



http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV1647500867&v=2.1&u=copp00443&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=b80885943386dcd14d25cb63aabb6669

why was there a need for this invention

Arkwright's prototype spinner was powered by horses, but in 1771 he perfected a water-powered spinner, hence the name water frame cotton yarn had been used in the weaving of fabrics. Unfortunately, the yarn spun using the "great wheel" or the spinning jenny was too weak for many applications, including hosiery. In looms, cotton yarn could be used as weft, but was not strong enough to serve as warp; in most cases, stronger threads of linen were used for this purpose. Arkwright's water frame first rn suitable for use as both warp and weft. For the first time in England, all-cotton materials could be woven.