Kristallnacht

(NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS)

WHAT WAS KRISTALLNACHT?

Kristallnacht was called the 'Night of Broken Glass' because of the broken glass that in the streets where Jewish owned stores had been wrecked. ('Kristall' refers to the high grade lead crystal glass used for shop windows and display cabinets). Beginning November 9,1938 the Nazis torched synagogues (a place of religious worship), vandalized Jewish homes, schools, businesses , and killed close to 100 Jews. It marked an increase in the Nazi persecution of the Jews that resulted in the Holocaust. This is one of the many important times in our history that has had a big impact and influence on our world today .

ECONOMIC STRUGGLES: BUSINESSES VANISHED

November, 1938, was the middle of a harsh time. There was an economic (money) struggle in North America, Europe, and many other industrialized (working) areas. This time became known as called the "Great Depression". During this time, many Jewish businesses had been Aryanized (remove all Jewish people). Within a year the Germans/Aryans had taken over 4 out of 5 businesses. Some Jews would say that in may ways the Germans stole enormous profits from these forced "surrenders". For example, the Germans made money off the sale/tranfer of former Jewish owned businesses.

JEWISH PROBLEMS: NEW LAWS

-Nuremberg Laws--Deprived all Jews of citizenship in 1935.

-January 1, 1938--The start of using identification cards.

-Mid year 1938--Many laws had been passed restricting Jewish economic activity and occupational activities.

-On August, 1938 -- Jews were forced to change their middle names . All Jewish men took the name "Israel" and all Jewish women took the name "Sara".

-October 28, 1938 --17,000 Jews of Polish citizenship living outside Poland were arrested and relocated across the Polish border. The Polish government refused to admit them, so they were sent to " relocation camps."

-Hitler Chief Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels,launched a program against German Jews/ Kristallnacht.

VIEWS AND STORIES: HANNA RAMRAS AND HJALMAR SCHACHT

HANNA

"I remember that the synagogue was stoned, the Jewish shops where a lot of damage was done and they were, they were closed. And I then I remember also a certain time where I was still in school but when we went home I went through the park which was a shortcut and I remember Brown Shirts running after us, Hitler Youth, and uh, throwing stones at us and uh, being very frightened."



HJALMAR

"Setting fire to Jewish Synagogues, the destruction and plundering of Jewish stores and businesses and the mistreatment of Jewish citizens was such a shameless and outrageous action that every decent minded German must blush in crimson shame."

WORKS CITED

Jewish Virtual Library - http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/holo.html

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - http://www.ushmm.org/learn/students/the-holocaust-a-learning-site-for-students/

Prelude to War by Robert Elson - "The Vengeful Vandalism of Kristallnacht"

BIO

Olivia Billips

Mrs.Moen

Period-6

Due Date: 3/03/2015