Unit 15

The Principles of a Safe and Effective Exercise Session

Principles of fitness training

When doing training athletes are identified by their strengths and weaknesses. It is then up to the personal trainer to improve these weaknesses and set clear goals for the athlete in training.

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Components of fitness

The Components of fitness include of strength, aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition.

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Adaptations to Training

Adaptations are changes that occur happen due to either short or long term training. Short term adaptations are immediate, usually including of increased heart rate. long term adaptations can conclude of aerobic endurance.

Increased Stroke Volume

As a person trains their heart enlarges as a result of this it will have an increased stroke volume. This describes the amount of blood that can be pumped from the heart’s ventricles in one contraction. Therefore, at rest the heart is able to pump more blood in one beat than in a person who is less aerobically fit. Stroke volume is defined as the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. Long-term aerobic exercise increases the size and efficiency of the heart and the stroke volume, which can be a slower heart rate.

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FITT Principles

When desiging any training programme, it is important that you consider the main factors to allow the programme to be safe and effective. FITT principles wil ionclude 4 factors, these factors are: frequency, itensity, time and type.


Type refers to the category of training that is being performed. This can vary from aerobic endurance to resistance training. The type relies on your specific goals. These should consist of strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, aerobic endurance and body composition.

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