MADE BY: (Regan Martinez)


About half the land in Russia is so cold that it has permafrost under it. Yet parts of Russia can also reach 100 degrees in summer. The climate affects the types of vegetation that grow in different areas. Tundra exists in Sideria, which lies in central and eastern Russia. Just south of the tundra is the taiga. mostly small evergreens like pines grow here.

  • Permafrost: Permanently frozen ground.

  • Tundra: Flat land found in arctic and subarctic regions.

  • Taiga: Forest area.


His region is among the world’s richest in natural resources. Russia and the Eurasian republics have plentiful energy resources, especially oil and natural gas. Russia is also a leading coal producer. These resources are nonrenewable fossil fuels. Russia also has large amounts of peat. Peat is burned like coal. In addition, some rivers provide hydroelectric power.

  • Nonrenewable fossil fuels: Fuel that cannot reproduce fast enough to keep pace with their use.

  • Hydroelectric power: A source of energy that uses flowing water to produce electricity.

  • Peat: Very old decayed plant material.


The Soviet Union formed in 1922. During the 1970s and 1980s, the economy of the region slowed. Soviet money had no value outside the country. People in the Eurasian republics had long resented the Soviet policy of Russification. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became head of the Soviet Communist Party and began to introduce reforms. He promoted a movement known as perestroika. Gorbachev also introduced the policy of glasnost. By the fall of 1990, all of the republics had declared their autonomy.

  • Perestroika: A movement led by Mikhail Gorbachev and means “restructuring.”

  • Autonomy: Determination to govern themselves.

  • Glasnost: Means “openness.”