The Immune and Endocrine system

The importance of them

The Function

Immune: The role of the immune system — a collection of structures and processes within the body — is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body's own healthy tissue.

Endocrine: The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.

Defining stuff

Immune: Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen.

Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells.

A pathogen is any disease-producing agent, especially a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism.

An antibody is a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.

Endocrine: The endocrine system provides an essential mechanism called homeostasis that integrates body activities and at the same time ensures that the composition of the body fluids bathing the constituent cells remains constant.

Useful information

Immune, why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses: Antibiotics are produced by microorganisms to kill or control the growth of other microorganisms by blocking specific metabolic pathways within the cell. Since bacteria are so different to human cells, antibiotics can be taken by humans to kill bacteria without harming the human cells. Viruses on the other hand are different as they do not carry out many metabolic processes themselves. Instead they rely on a host cell (a human cell) to carry out these processes for them. Therefore viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics as it is impossible to harm the virus without harming the human cells.

Endocrine, negative feedback mechanism and provide an example (in the body):

2 Major disorders in these systems

Immune: HIV/AIDS, The HIV virus (which causes AIDS) destroys a type of lymphocyte which has a vital role in antibody production. Over the years this results in a reduced amount of active lymphocytes. Therefore, less antibodies are produced which makes the body very vulnerable to pathogens. A pathogen that could easily be controlled by the body in a healthy individual can cause serious consequences and eventually lead to death for patients affected by HIV.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.[2][3]Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.

Endocrine, Type 1&2 Diabetes: With type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks part of its own pancreas. Scientists are not sure why. But the immune system mistakenly sees the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign, and destroys them. This attack is known as "autoimmune" disease.These cells – called “islets”, are the ones that sense glucose in the blood and, in response, produce the necessary amount of insulin to normalize blood sugars.

Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, the bodies of people with type 2 diabetes make insulin. But either their pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin well enough. This is called insulin resistance. When there isn't enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose (sugar) can't get into the body's cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body's cells are not able to function properly.