Russian War In Afghanistan

By Kelly Mayes and Caitlin Hartigan

FAST FACTS!


  • The Soviet war in Afghanistan lasted nine years from December 1979 to February 1989
  • Leonid Ilich Brezhnev (1906-1982), the Communist Party leader who directed the activities of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) from Moscow and who ordered the invasion of Afghanistan
  • On February 29, 1980, fifteen hundred were reported killed and two thousand were arrested. Schools, hospitals, stores, and mosques were bombed by the Soviets. By March, 1980, more than 110,000 were reported dead, and the killing went on. In the repeated bombing of the village of Istalif, north of Kabul, between October 12 and October 19, 1983, five hundred were killed and the same number were wounded.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1931), the president of the Soviet Union who opted for an end to the war and for settling the dispute in the political arena
  • Nur Mohammad Taraki (19171979), the leader of the Khalq faction of the PDPA who became president of Afghanistan in 1978 by overthrowing Mohammad Daud
  • Russian 14453 killed, 53753 wounded, 417 missing, 415932 sick.
  • Afghanistan casualties and losses were unknown.
  • Christmas 1979, Russian paratroopers landed in Kabal, the capital of Afghanistan.
  • Overview of Cause:
  1. Soviet Expansion
  2. Perception of Muslim Regimes (Iran)
  3. Instability of Afghanistan
  4. US Soviet Competition during Cold War
  5. Warm Water Port on Indian Ocean (continued conquest as Afghanistan is landlocked)
  6. Betrayl of Ancient Relationship
  7. Ethnic divisions within Afghanistan Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8% Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%



Timeline :)

Soviet intervention

1979 December - Soviet Army invades and props up communist government.

1980 - Babrak Karmal installed as ruler, backed by Soviet troops. But opposition intensifies with various mujahideen groups fighting Soviet forces. US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia supply money and arms to the mujahideen.

1985 - Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces. Half of Afghan population now estimated to be displaced by war, with many fleeing to neighbouring Iran or Pakistan.

1986 - US begins supplying mujahideen with Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot down Soviet helicopter gunships. Babrak Karmal replaced by Najibullah as head of Soviet-backed regime.

1988 - Afghanistan, USSR, the US and Pakistan sign peace accords and Soviet Union begins pulling out troopsSoviet intervention

1979 December - Soviet Army invades and props up communist government.

1980 - Babrak Karmal installed as ruler, backed by Soviet troops. But opposition intensifies with various mujahideen groups fighting Soviet forces. US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia supply money and arms to the mujahideen.

1985 - Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces. Half of Afghan population now estimated to be displaced by war, with many fleeing to neighbouring Iran or Pakistan.

1986 - US begins supplying mujahideen with Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot down Soviet helicopter gunships. Babrak Karmal replaced by Najibullah as head of Soviet-backed regime.

1988 - Afghanistan, USSR, the US and Pakistan sign peace accords and Soviet Union begins pulling out troops