Developmental Psychology

By; Stephanie Veser

Parenting Styles

There are four types of parenting styles. Authoritarian, Democratic, Permissive, and Uninvolved.


Authoritarian

Pros; Children are held to high standards, so they do very well in school. Also they are well disciplined so this will help with behavioral issues.

Cons; Poor life schools, no rewards for good behavior


Democratic

Pros; considered to be an ideal way of raising children, consider their kids as equals, It makes the children independent and capable of making their own decisions.

Cons; This style needs to be adopted when the children are small. Because when this style is adopted on younger children, it is more likely that a situation can arise wherein the children question parents instructions or decisions. It requires a lot of time and effort from the parents involved.


Permissive

Pros; Kids tend to like it more in the teen stage, parents trust children more

Cons; Act like friends with their kids, very lenient, not many rules


Uninvolved

Pros; Learn things on there own at early age

Cons; Kids feel neglected, no discipline, do whatever they want, stress/anxiety from lack of family support

Language Development

6 months; Vocalization with intonation

Responds to his name

Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes

Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones


12 months;

Uses one or more words with meaning

Understands simple instructions, especially if vocal or physical cues are given

Practices inflection


18 months;

Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words

Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns


24 months;

Approximately 2/3 of what child says should be intelligible

Vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words

Rhythm and fluency often poor

Volume and pitch of voice not yet well-controlled

Can use two pronouns correctly like I, me, you, although me and I are often confused


etc.


Kohlberg's Theory

Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)

1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)

2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?)(Paying for a benefit)

Level 2 (Conventional)

3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms)(The good boy/girl attitude)

4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)

Level 3 (Post-Conventional)

5. Social contract orientation

6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)