By: Dhanya, Ishnoor and Zainab

Introduction of Space

Hello you are here to learn about Space . There are 9 planets in our solar system. All of them orbit the Sun.


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Mars Introduction

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. Named after the Roman god of war, and often described as the "Red Planet" due to its reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere composed primarily of carbon dioxide.

Moon's of Mars

Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos. They were both discovered in 1877, by Asaph Hall at the Naval Observatory in Washington DC. Phobos is the larger one of Mars' moons, and it orbits closer to the surface of Mars than Deimos does. Phobos is 22 km in diameter, and orbits Mars three times every 24 hours.


The dust that covers the surface of Mars is fine like talcum powder. Beneath the layer of dust, the Martian crust consists mostly of volcanic basalt rock. The soil of Mars also holds nutrients such as sodium, potassium, chloride and magnesium.


Differing in situ values have been reported for the average temperature on Mars, with a common value being −55 °C (218 K; −67 °F). Surface temperatures may reach a high of about 20 °C (293 K; 68 °F) at noon, at the equator, and a low of about −153 °C (120 K; −243 °F) at the poles. For most of the time Mars temperature is very cold.

Mars Planet Profile

Mass:0.642 x 10^24 kg (0.107 x Earth)

Equatorial Diameter:6,805 km

Polar Diameter:6,755 km

Equatorial Circumference:21,297 km

Known Moons:2

Notable Moons:Phobos & Deimos

Orbit Distance:227,943,824 km (1.38 AU)

Orbit Period:686.98 Earth days (1.88 Earth years)

Surface Temperature: -87 to -5 °C

First Record:2nd millennium BC

Recorded By:Egyptian astronomers

Interesting Facts About Mars

1. The Egyptians gave Mars its first recorded name: Har dècher (“The red one”). The Babylonians called it Nergal (“Star of death”). The Greeks and Romans named the planet after their respective gods of war, Ares and Mars. The Hebrews called it Ma’adim, or “One who blushes.” Many ancient people believed the reddish color came from actual blood on the planet.

2. The month of March is named after Mars.

3. The symbol of Mars looks like a shield and a spear from the war god Mars/Ares. It is also the symbol for the male sex.

4. The ancient Greeks thought that Earth was the center of the universe and that Mars was one of the five traveling stars that revolved around it.

5. Egyptians called Mars the “the backward traveler” because Mars appeared to move backwards through the zodiac every 25.7 months.

6. Mars’ red color is due to iron oxide, also known as rust, and has the consistency of talcum powder. Literally, the metallic rocks on Mars are rusting.

7. The atmosphere (mostly made up of carbon dioxide) on Mars is so thin that water cannot exist in liquid form—it can exist only as water vapor or ice. Liquid water is considered for many scientists to be the “holy grail” of Mars.

8. No human could survive the low pressure of Mars. If you went to Mars without an appropriate space suit, the oxygen in your blood would literally turn into bubbles, causing immediate death.

9. If you were driving 60 mph in a car, it would take 271 years and 221 days to get to Mars from Earth.

10. Mars lacks an ozone layer; therefore, the surface of Mars is bathed in a lethal dose of radiation every time the sun rises.


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Jupiter Introduction

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. Jupiter is the 3rd brightest in the night sky after in moon and Venus. In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter with a telescope.

The name Jupiter

The Romans knew of seven bright objects in the sky: the Sun, the Moon and the five brightest planets. They named them after their most important gods. Jupiter, the largest planet, was named after the king of the Roman gods.

How many moons does Jupiter have

Jupiter has at least 63 known moons. The largest four are called Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. These four moons are called the Galilean satellites because they were first seen in 1610 by the astronomer Galileo Galilei. Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System.

Jupiter's Temperature

With an average temperature of minus 234 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 145 degrees Celsius), Jupiter is frigid even in its warmest weather. Unlike Earth, whose temperature varies as one moves closer to or farther from the equator, Jupiter's temperature depends more on height above the surface. This is because heat is driven not by the sun but by the inside of the planet.

What is Jupiter made of ...

Jupiter is a giant gas planet. Its atmosphere is made up of mostly hydrogen gas and helium gas, just like the sun. The planet's surface is covered in thick red, brown, yellow and white clouds.

What is the Big Red Dot?

The Great Red Spot is a giant, Spinnig storm in Jupiter's atmosphere. It is like a hurricane on Earth, but it is much larger. Jupiter's Great Red Spot is more than twice the size of Earth! Winds inside this storm reach speeds of about 270 miles per hour. Nobody knows when the Great Red Spot first appeared on Jupiter, but it has been seen on Jupiter ever since people started looking through telescopes about 400 years ago.

Does Jupiter have rings?

Yes, Jupiter does have faint, narrow rings. Unlike Saturn, which has bright ice rings, Jupiter has dark rings which are made up of dust and tiny pieces of rock. Jupiter's rings were discovered by NASA's Voyager 1 mission in 1980.
Space School Jupiter

Blue moon

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“Once in a blue moon” is a common expression that has been used for a long time, and which means ‘not very often,’ or ‘very rarely.’ It often refers to an extra full moon; however, it has been used to describe the way the moon actually looked, when for different reasons it had turned a bluish color.

What is a blue moon ?

The modern day definition of a Blue Moon is when there are 2 full moons in one Month. A full moon occurs roughly every 29.5 days and on the rare occasions when the full moon falls at the very beginning of a month there is a good chance a Blue Moon will occur at the end of the month. According to this definition the next blue moon will occur on July 31, 2015.

Is a blue moon a real thing

The saying "once in a blue moon" has nothing to do with color. Instead it refers to the relatively rare occurrence of what is called a "blue moon". (However, an actual blue-colored moon could occur from atmospheric effects such as a big forest fire on Earth causing a lot of haze. This has happened in the past!)

How many times do we see a full moon in a year

So you might expect to get 12 full Moons every year, and you'd be close. A year is about 365.25 days, so there should be 12.37 full cycles of lunar phases a year (dividing 365.25 days per year by 29.531 days per lunar cycle), which means 12 full cycles—so 12 full Moons—plus a little bit, about a 1/3 of a cycle more.


1. A blue moon comes out only 1 time in a year.

2.There is no oxygen on the blue moon.

3.The blue moon is not really blue.

4.The blue moon has many names.

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Do you believe space exploration IS or IS NOT important for human? Why?

Ishnoor Answer Is:

Yes, space exploration is important because it helps us to know more about our universe for example we get to know about our planets, and satellites etc. Space exploration helps us to know that is there any meteor shower coming near Earth , we get to know that there is water on Mars , there are how many moon's of the planets etc. So, I think space exploration is important for humans.