By: Alyse Karanian

General Information On Winds

What Causes Winds? Winds are the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.

What Is Wind? Wind is the parallel movement of air with the ground. It is also the sideways movement of air.

Local Winds

What Are Local Winds? Local winds are winds that blow over a short distance, and change in speed and direction.

How are local winds created? Local winds are created by the unequal heating of Earth's surface.

Land and Sea Breezes

How Do Land Breezes Blow/Form? Land breezes blow at night from the land (high pressure) to the sea( low pressure). Since the land cools off quicker than the ocean, the air over the land cools off. The particles then become closer together and become denser. The denser particles then sink down, towards the land. The cool land air sinks beneath the warm rising ocean air since it has more density. The warm ocean air expands, and rises, since it has less density than the cooler land air. As the warm air rises, it cools off causing it to sink back towards the ground. This flow of air from the land to the ocean is called a Land Breeze.

How Do Sea Breezes Blow/Form?

Sea Breezes blow during the day from the sea (high pressure) to the land (low pressure). The air over the ocean heats up more slowly than the land does. Th cool ocean air is denser and moves in beneath the warmer land air. The land, which heats up faster than the ocean, causes the air over the land to expand and rise above the ocean air. The warm air rises, cooling off as it does. Then it condenses, forming clouds. The air continues to coll as moves over the cooler ocean. The cool denser air begins to sink, causing the cool air to blow towards the shoreline. This movement is called a Sea Breeze.

Global Winds

What Are Global Winds? Global winds are winds that blow over long distances, and mostly keep the same speed and direction.

How Are Global Winds Created? Global winds are created due uneven heating at the poles and the equator. Warm air over the equator rises, and cooler air sinks at the poles. The poles have a higher air pressure, and the equator has a lower air pressure, therefore causing the air from the poles to blow to the equator. The warm air at the equator cools and is pushed towards the poles, which creates winds that push the air back towards the equator. This is called a Global Wind.


What Are Doldrums/How Are They Formed? Doldrums are bands of calm air, which rises, located near the equator. They are formed due to the fact of the Coriolis effect, which causes the winds to turn, (Right in the northern hemisphere, and Left in the Southern hemisphere.) The winds eventually die out right around the equator causing the equator to have a calm band of warm rising air.

Polar Easterlies, Trade Winds, and Jet Streams

What Are Polar Easterlies/ How Are They Formed? Polar easterlies are winds that blow cold air away from the poles. They are formed by the tilt of earth's axis, which causes the cold air to turn and blow away from the poles. They blow from both the north and south poles(90 degrees north and 90 degrees south.)

What Are Trade Winds/ How Do They Form? Trade winds are winds that are between 0 degrees and 30 degrees. They blow from the horse latitudes to the equator. These winds were used by sailors to travel, and trade goods. They are created also because of Earth's tilt which causes the winds to blow away from the horse latitudes and towards the equator.

What Are Jet Streams? Jets streams are bands of air that run west to east. They are 10 kilometers above Earth, in the upper troposphere, and are many miles wide. The jets streams are used by pilots, which use it to save fuel, and travel faster when traveling west to east. They also determine what much of our weather will be.