Transgenic organisms

By: Hayden Benshoff

What is a transgenic organism?

Modern genetic technology can be used to modify the genomes of living organisms. This process is also known as “genetic engineering.” Genes of one species can be modified, or genes can be transplanted from one species to another. Genetic engineering is made possible by recombinant DNA technology. Organisms that have altered genomes are known as transgenic. Most transgenic organisms are generated in the laboratory for research purposes


Genes: A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins


recombinant: joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations


Genome: A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism

Process of Bacterial Transformation

Definition: Bacterial transformation is the process by which bacterial cells take up naked DNA molecules. If the foreign DNA has an origin of replication recognized by the host cell DNA polymerases, the bacteria will replicate the foreign DNA along with their own DNA. When transformation is coupled with antibiotic selection techniques, bacteria can be induced to uptake certain DNA molecules, and those bacteria can be selected for that incorporation


Process: First you will isolate the gene of interest, then insert the foreign DNA into bacterial plasmid. this is done using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. To get the bacteria to take in the plasmid insert recombinant DNA into the bacteria. selecting the successful transferred bacteria will produce the desired product.

Source for the process: notes

Transgenic food

The food and feed which contains or consist of such GMOs, or are produced from GMOs, are called genetically modified (GM) food or feed. Organisms to which foreign inheritable genes have been introduced by genetic methods are called transgenic organisms. Big companies are starting to grow these because they're more resistant to heat, cold, disease, and more nutritious. The most commonly modified foods are corn, zucchini, soy, alfalfa, canola, sugar beets, and milk
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Transgenic Bacteria

transgenic bacteria is the bacteria that carries a foreign DNA (transgene) artificially inserted into it in the laboratory is called as Transgenic bacteria. These microbes are useful in the production of antibiotics, alcohol, steroids and enzymes which are commercially important biochemicals. They're generally used to produce hormones like insulin
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Genetic engineering in humans

Genetic engineering is used generally used to change the embryo while they're developing. They use this to stop certain genetic disorders, some people use this advantage to choose what there babies have and that too me seems terrible to lay god like that. Too study genetic engineering they need stem cells which comes from aborted babies, which is why genetic engineering is such a controversial topic.
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My stance on genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is changing the genes of a developing organisms. Personally I think that engineering a plants genes to become less susceptible to pest and disease. I've always been an animal rights advocate and that will never change, I never think that engineering on people or animals is okay. I think genetic engineering is a lot of playing god and that upsets a lot of people. I can see where people think that "I can change my kid before they're born to make it perfectly healthy" which i think that every child is born special and god only gives special kids to special people. Some think that they could design they're kid to be perfect but that's really manipulative to me and I don't support that.