Middle Ages Archive

The largest archive for the Middle Ages (by Mason H).

Feudalism / Manorialism

[NOV. 7, 2014]


Feudalism // The dominant social system in Medieval Europe, in which nobility held lands from the "crown" in exchange for military service; you would get land if you risked your life.


Manorialism // Medieval system of land ownership.


Feudalism:


Fief - a fee or feud of a feudal lord.

Vassal - a person granted use of land (e.g. noble knight).

Pope - the bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church.

Monarchy - a state or nation in which the supreme power is elected in a monarch.

Nobles - part of a special social status; upper class.

Knights - a mounted soldier in medieval times.

Serfs - a servant-like person.

Peasant - person of little financial means.

Black Death [Report] [NOV. 7, 2014]

The Black Death is highly-deadly disease, widely spread in the Medieval Times. It was spread through trading , more specifically blood transfusion. It lasted from 1347-1351. It killed 21,000,000-25,000,000 Europeans. It originated in central and Eastern Asia. There is no cure for this disease, even to this very day.


Black Death was a series of plagues. The worst being the bubonic plague. This could be identified by swellings called buboes that appeared on victims bodies. The Black Death killed so rapidly that many were buried without a priest. 1/3 of Europe was killed from this disease/plague. It is rare, but even today people get the 'Black Death'. We may never find a cure. Could Ebola be the next 'Black Death'?

Monarchs [NOV. 7, 2014]

Kings and Queens were the monarchs of the Medieval Times. There were very many of these in the Middle Ages (because of its timespan that ran through around 1000 AD).


List of important monarchs (via lordsandladies.org):



  • King Richard II 1377-1399 (grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Prince)
  • King Henry IV 1399-1413 (grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt)
  • King Henry V 1413-1422 (son of Henry IV)
  • King Henry VI 1422-1461 (son of Henry V)
  • King Edward IV 1461-1483 ( youngest son of Edward III )
  • Edward V - One of the little Prices in theTower
  • King Richard III 1483-1485 (uncle of Edward V)
  • King Henry II 1154-1189 (grandson of Henry I)
  • King Richard I 1189-1199 (third son of Henry II)
  • King John 1199-1216 (fifth son of Henry II)
  • King Henry III 1216-1272 (son of John)
  • King Edward I 1272-1307 (son of Henry III)
  • King Edward II 1307-1327 (son of Edward I)
  • King Edward III 1327-1377 (son of Edward II)
  • William the Conqueror 1066-1087
  • King William Rufus 1087-1100 ( the second son of William the Conqueror )
  • King Henry I 1100-1135 ( William Rufus' brother)
  • Queen Matilda ( daughter of King Henry I replaced by her cousin King Stephen )
  • King Stephen 1135-1154 (nephew of Henry I)

The Crusades [NOV. 8, 2014]

Description: a quest for the Holy Land (Jerusalem); the Holy Wars.


The Crusades were the 'Holy Wars'. The two main religions they consisted of were Christianity (Catholicism) and the Muslims (Turkish). The first attempt to take control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) was made in 1099 A.D. This attempt was successful and the Christians took Jerusalem from the Muslims. Shortly after, because their negligence, the Muslims easily took back over Jerusalem. Jerusalem let the Christians live there for a while, but the Christians kept wanting more and more out of the Muslims country. They were eventually just kicked out. The Christians attempted 4-5 more times to take over the country. They never succeeded after the first Crusade.

Spanish Inquisition

Time - 1492-1892 (exactly 400 years)


The reason for this was so they could try and force heretics into confessing that the Catholic religion was the "correct way" and that they were trying to get them to "see the light" (it kind of backfires when you're torturing people, doesn't it?). It was started by. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. This inquisition applied to Jews, Muslims, Protestants, witches, the sexually immoral, and anyone else the tribunals chose. The most infamous torture method was "the rack".

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Knights

- a mounted soldier serving under a feudal supervisor in the Middle Ages.


* knights were nobles

* knighthood reached its climax in the 15th century

* in the Middle Ages [specifically the 11th century], the knight started to take shape of what we think of as knight in this time and day

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Advancements

List of advancements (a few):


- Cannons

- Nationalism [pride in country]

- Long bow

The Church

A few quick facts:


- Christian (Catholic)

- fought in the Crusades

- not very successful in the Crusades

- in Europe (mainly)


The Church was (and is) very... Different. They eventually were the reason for the beginning of the Spanish Inquisition (and were fine with it, too).

Growth of Cities

Medici family:


- Italian

- first banking system

- "mafia"

- power + control

- encouraged arts

- not royalty

- rise of the middle class

- Florence, Italy


Advancements:


See above on page...


Religion:


- Catholics "tone it down"

- crusades = ineffective

- people lose some faith in the Church


Human Potential:


- moved from manors to cities

- greater need for merchants + artisans

- cities cause huge demand for peoples

List of popes (a few)

Here they are...


Gregory VII

Leo XI

Gregory XIV

Leo XIII