Canada in 2035

By: Sarrah Chakera


Currently Canada is a great country to live in; in fact it is one of the greatest countries in the world. From all aspects such as demographics, physical environment, economic and communities Canada is known to be one of the top countries. Every country has flaws, even Canada, but our nation works hard to fix our flaws and make our country better. With every problem we give our best solution and if that does not work we persevere and research other ways to solve the problem and that is something many countries are not willing to do. Canada is a desired destination for immigrants, has a diverse climate, has many available resources and trade partners and has livable communities. These factors are what make Canada different from other countries; this is what makes Canada one of the best countries. By 2035 Canada will only take steps forward working its way to be the best country globally.

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Changing Populations

A Desired Destination for Immigrants

Canada currently attracts many immigrants from around the world, and it will continue to do so for several reasons. Canada is in stage four of the demographic transition model. This means that our population growth, birth rates and death rates, are stable as a result of industrialization. This is largely because we have many high quality health care facilities which results in our population living longer and healthier lives. Furthermore, due to several pull factors, which outweigh the intervening obstacles, Canada is currently attracting 220 000 people annually through immigration. If this trend continues, immigration rates in Canada will continue to rise in 2035. Canada is a desired destination for immigrants because of the diverse ethnicities, and various opportunities and privileges present in Canada. We are a bilingual country with freedom of speech and the freedom to practice any religion because of our democratic government. These political factors influence immigration to Canada positively. The Canadian education system provides free and mandatory schooling up to grade 12, but also has several post-secondary education facilities for which they provide financial aid. This is another pull factor for immigrants. Canada provides several continuing education programs for immigrants. Additionally, because of the vast job opportunities throughout Canada, immigrants are able to find jobs easily. The dependency load also prevents children under 14 and adults over 65 to work. Different climates throughout the year will be another benefit of immigrating to Canada. In 2035 this will still be the desired destination for immigrants because as technology develops we will further enhance our country and make it more of a desired destination as we better our economy and beat our competition the U.K and the United States of America. A bright immigration past will lead to a bright immigration future.

Immigrants Attracted to Canada

Canada has greatly appealed largely to the Chinese and South Asian communities because of the numerous job opportunities in Canada. However, with industrialization occurring throughout the world the Chinese and South Asian economies have grown and have become more stable. This results in a smaller push factor for these communities to come to Canada because they can find jobs in their own nation. Even though Canada still has the appeal to them because of better air quality and water quality, we attract them at a slower rate than usual. By 2035 we will be attracting groups such as Africans and Middle Eastern people. Africans will be attracted to Canada because their nation is still in poverty and have poor health care facilities and services. Currently they are plagued with diseases such as Ebola, and other respiratory diseases. These diseases are still looking to be cured and will still be a push factor for Africans in 2035. They would continue to migrate to Canada so that they can start a healthy life here. A major push factor for Middle Eastern people would be because of wars, riots and political disputes in their nation. Wars and riots occurring now will take time to solve and even after a war the country would not be suitable for safe living. There would be all the destruction of the war and may be left over bombs which could harm people. The political disputes does not allow for the citizens in that country to have freedom of speech. Moreover, the air quality would not be safe as it would be very murky and may be toxic. Political disputes in areas of the Middle East may create cruel living conditions for citizens. The democratic and peace keeping country, Canada, would be the best place to immigrate to, to avoid all of these severities and start a fresh and safe life in.

Canada's Population in 2035

In 2035 Canada will be a diverse, bilingual and highly educated country. We will have immigrants from all over the globe speaking different languages and of different cultures and ethnicities. We will have an aging population as the baby boomers retire. Canada’s population will constantly be growing, but at a slow rate. In 2009 our population was 33.7 million people and we expect 41.1-47.7 million people by 2036. This is because of our natural increase rate and our net migration rate. Our natural increase rate will be 267 00 people daily. This is because our daily number of births is 906 00 and our daily number of deaths is 267 00 people. If this rate continues our population will continue to grow. The net migration rate will also be positive because the number of immigrants outweighs the number of emigrants in Canada. The net migration rate is 548 00 people daily because the daily immigrants are 655 00 and the daily emigrants are 107 00 people. Overall the population growth would be 815 00 people daily. If this trend continues by 2035 we will have a total population between 41.1 million and 47.7 million. Also, our population would be very dense in places such as Ontario, British Colombia and Alberta in comparison to Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador. This is because there are more job opportunities and better commodities there. Our population will have many people over the age of 65 due to the fact that the baby boomers are retiring. Overall, Canada has a great population growth rate which is stable and an excellent economy which is another reason why it can be one of the greatest countries in world.

First Nations, Metis and Inuit in 2035

Canadian First Nations, Metis and Inuit are currently facing the issue of small and overcrowded reserves. They are also not receiving enough education. They are also are rapidly growing and aging population. Living in these reserves results in the people becoming sick very fast because there are many people living in the same area. The population of first nations is growing so many are moving to urban centers. Reserves are important to First Nations, Metis and Inuit because it is land of their own. In the close future of 2035 many FNMI will be living in urban centers because they know that they cannot sustain life in these overcrowded reserves. Not only would the health aspect of living there not be suitable, but because the FNMI are living in a life of poverty, and as life would continue to become expensive, they soon would not be able to afford life. Canada will hopefully hear their concerns as they realize the severity of the problem and how it will affect our economy.

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Canada's Physical Environment

Canada's Climate

Canada has a wide variation of climate throughout the year. We have four seasons which include winter, spring, summer and fall.. Canada’s climate is affected by six factors. . These factors are Latitude, Ocean Currents, Wind and Air Masses, Elevation, Relief and Near Water this is also known as LOWER N. Latitude is a large reason why Canada is quite cool. This is because when the sun’s rays hit the surface of the earth the energy is dispersed among a larger area because of the curvature of the earth. If we were located near the Equator then we would have warmer climate as the suns energy would be spread across a small area, but because we are farther up north the same amount of energy is spread across a larger area. The coastal areas of Canada such as British Colombia, P.E.I’s climate are affected by ocean currents. The air mass above the ocean creates warmer winters and cooler summers because that moves towards the land taking the air mass with it. Wind and air masses affect the climate as well. The jet stream separates the cold air mass from the north and the warm air mass of the south. Once the jet stream moves north we get warmer climate (summer), when the jet stream moves south we get a colder climate (winter). Elevation and relief does not entirely affect Canada’s climate, but does affect the northern areas like Northwest Territories or Nunavut. In these mountainous regions, as warm air rises and condenses’ it produces snow and because of the low temperature, the snow remains. They would receive relief precipitation because these territories are located in mountainous regions. Near waters also affects the climate and precipitation we get because the water evaporates and creates lots of moisture in the air which creates lots of rain. Coastal areas will be positively affected because there is lots of vegetation there which will benefit from the rain. The coastal areas would have maritime climate, whereas the provinces in the center of the country would have continental climate. This is known as the moderating effect. We receive convectional, cyclonic and sometimes relief precipitation throughout Canada because of the temperature and climate factors in our nation.

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Canada's Landform and Vegetation Regions

Canada has various landform regions and each with unique properties and vegetation. Canada has seven different landform regions which include the Innuitian Mountains, Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, Western Cordillera, Hudson Bay- Artic Lowlands and the Appalachians. These landforms combined create Canada. The Canadian Shield makes up most of Canada. It is a region with Precambrian rock and is used for recreational fishing, has mineral deposits and is an area for logging. This region is not the best region for vegetation as it is mainly parent material. The Interior Plains is a region that has very fertile, buthas dry lands as it was a former sea bed. It is located in parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and N.W.T. The Interior Plains has many oil and natural gas deposits. The Innuitian Mountains are located in northern Nunavut with a lot of snow. These mountains are not suitable for vegetation as much of the region is permafrost. The Innuitian Mountains have many zinc, iron and nickel deposits and are mostly sedimentary rock. The Hudson Bay Lowlands are located in northern Ontario and Manitoba. It is a very flat plain that has few trees and is sparsely populated. It is difficult to grow crops as it is a wetland region. The Western Cordillera is located in British Colombia, Alberta and Yukon. The colliding of plates created this young, rugged mountain range. It is also a forest region and has the best vegetation in Canada. The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Lowlands are located in southern areas of Ontario and Quebec. It is the smallest region but is used for transportation and has fertile land due to glacial till deposits. It is located in the industrial areas of Canada. The Appalachian Mountains are located in Eastern coast of Canada. They are rounded hills with coal deposits and allow for many recreation activities. These landforms have made Canada what it is today and has created a variety of uses in these landform regions. By 2035 these regions will continue to be sustained so that we can keep our natural beauty in this fine country.

The different vegetation zones in Canada include Tundra, Boreal Forest, Mixed Forest, Deciduous Forest, Grasslands, Cordeillan Vegetation and West Coast Forest. The tundra is the most north of Canada with permafrost so rare vegetation occurs. The Boreal Forest is the largest vegetation zone. It has many coniferous trees, but also is populated with wetlands. The Mixed Forest has good soil for growing crops because of the till left behind from glaciers. The Deciduous Forest is in southern Ontario has good soil as the dead leaves can decompose and create good humus in the soil. The Grasslands are prairies which are too dry for trees to grow in, but because of the humus and flat land is good condition for agriculture. The Cordeillan Vegetation is in the west coast of Canada and has too high elevation for suitable vegetation. The West Coast Forest is good growing conditions as there is good humus. Overall these vegetation zones help enhance Canada’s beauty and help create Canada’s finest crops

Climate Change in 2035

In 2035 climate change will affect all of Canada, but it will greatly affect British Colombia, Nunavut and P.E.I. British Colombia will be affected because of global warming. Global warming will lead to the melting of glaciers which will lead to a rise in sea levels. If the sea levels rise there will be an increased chance of flood . This affects the vegetation because if flooding occurs because of global warming, the soils will have lots of water in them and leaching will occur. This will ruin the crop there and may cause erosion to some of the islands in British Colombia. Increased flood risks will pose a threat to the population there because flooding can ruin their homes. Nunavut is another location which may be affected because of climate change. The many greenhouse gas emissions from Canada such as the Alberta oil sands emit CO2 in the atmosphere which will lead to the depletion of the ozone layer. If the ozone layer is damaged more UV radiation will pass through and cause ice bergs to melt. This affects the animal habitats in Nunavut because they depend on the cold climate and snowy regions to survive and if they lose that they can become extinct. It also ruins ecotourism businesses such as skiing and snowboarding resorts or natural viewing businesses as all the natural snow will be gone. P.E.I is another location which is affected due to climate change. If flooding occurs due to global warming then ocean acidification can occur. This is when there is increased algae growth in the water. This happens because of agricultural run off so if the water is contaminated with agriculture waste then we can ruin the vegetation there and fishing industries there. With Canada helping to reduce factors that affect climate change, many of the problems will and can be avoided in the future and Canada will continue to be the dream country for many people around the world.
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Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

Important resources in 2035

In 2035 our most important resources will be oil, forestry and water. Oil will be one of our most important resources because it will continue to be one of the top trades we make with other countries because it will be a demanded resource as it is non-renewable and is used widely in many industries. Forestry will also be an important resource in 2035 because it creates jobs. This is important because it will provide extra lumber to create houses for our rising populations. Lumber is also used as a trade source with other countries. Finally, Water will be one of our most important resources in 2035 as the fresh water supply dwindles, and will continue to decrease if the usage continues as it currently is. Water has a rapid demand as it is a basic necessity for life and is a key component for manufacturing. Canada has a large source of fresh and clean water which will attract many people here and will create lots of trade as other nations will want our water. Our crops will also need water so that there will be good soil for them to grow in. Overall, these resources will be very important to Canada and because of the access to these resources we just add to why Canada is one of the greatest countries.

Canada's Future Managing Resources Sustanablly

These resources are important to Canada as they help with our trade and globalization. This means that we need to sustain it before we consume them and loose our most important resources. To sustain our oil resources we should use electric cars. Urbanization is increasing the number of cars being used. Today, most families own more than one car, and this all results in more gasoline being used. .If we have electric cars then we will save much of our oil resource and help reduce climate change. Also if other countries hear that Canada is using electric cars then it will be a major pull factor as air quality will be the better We can also sustain oil by using public transit and carpooling because there will be less carbon emissions and that means less destruction of the ozone layer, resulting in less impact to climate change. Using oil sustainably will reduce the amounts of the resource we use and it will benefit the environment as well. To sustain our forests we can have a 1:3 system where for every 1 tree you take you plant 3 so that there will always be enough for future uses. Also, materials that are made from wood should be recycled and used again for other purposes. For example if a home is torn down due to structural problems you should avoid the usage of new wood and should try to reuse the wood from the home. To sustain the water we have and continue to be praised upon on how well and clean our water resources are, we need to implement ways where companies have a quota of water which they must use and reuse. . Furthermore, companies should filter waste before dumping it into the water because then it will contaminate the rest of the water. By filtering the waste, and removing all toxins, the fresh and clean water supply can be maintained for several generations. The waste that the water produced can be burned and turned into energy and the carbon released from the burning of the waste can be captured and used for energy. Overall, these three resources are important to Canada and so we should continue to take care of them because it will benefit us in the future of 2035.

Canada's Global Connections Through Trade and Globalization

Canada is connected to the world in many ways due to trade and globalization. Canada is part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which is one of the strongest trade agreements in the world. We have much of our trade with NAFTA because it benefits all economies that are part of the agreement. Countries that are part of the NAFTA agreement are Canada, United States and Mexico. We are also connected to the world through the World Trade Organization (WTO). It allows trade through many nations to be able to obtain cheaper products. The WTO results in Canada receiving diverse range of products. Canada has many great resources we produce here such as oil, lumber, and clean water that we often trade with NAFTA and the WTO. The trade with the various countries allows for a greater variety of goods and services to exist in Canada, making life significantly enhanced and better for the people living in Canada. In 2035 our trade with these nations will become even stronger making them the strongest trade agreements in the world. Also in 2035 our products we trade will further enhance as these products and services that Canada provides become higher in demand.

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Livable Communities

Issues Canadian Cities are Facing

Issues that Canadian cites are facing as our country becomes more urban are transportation, sustaining natural scenery and with waste management. As provinces such as Ontario, British Colombia and Alberta face population growth they face the problem of more cars on the roads. More cars on the roads results in higher GHG emissions. Also, with an increasing population, public transport is becoming saturated. We have overcrowded buses and will need to create more efficient bus routes. Transportation within the community will need to become easily accessible as these provinces will have many residents looking for a way to efficiently get around the city. As urban sprawl is an escalating problem we push natural scenery out of the city rather than sustaining it within. We are trying to make space for residents to start a life, but are forgetting the importance of having the nature within our lives as well. Even with the greenbelt preserving nature within the city none of it is in the heart all of it has been pushed to the very edge of the city. Another problem Canadian cities are facing is with waste management. Landfills are using much of our space, that can otherwise be used to develop homes for people to live in and many of the items being sent to the landfill are recyclable or compostable materials. With proper education and proper disposal of these materials we can minimize the waste and reduce the space being used for landfills. Overall, these issues are coming towards Provinces such as Ontario, British Colombia and Alberta and need to be resolved so that we further enhance our livable communities in Canada.

Initiatives Canada is Taking to be Sustainable in 2035

Canada is working to become sustainable in the future within our transportation systems, waste management and natural scenic areas. To be sustainable by 2035 with our transportation system, we need to implement better bus routes so that commuters are efficiently getting around the city. Also, we need to encourage people to use the public transit rather than their own vehicles. To do so we should provide space inside of the public transit to store items such as groceries, briefcases, or other equipment. Our waste is also an issue which needs to be controlled so that it does not consume us by 2035. As landfills are taking up much of our space we can make and incinerator to burn the garbage to use for energy. We can also create a carbon capture storage system so that we do not pollute our air from burning the garbage. We can also promote proper disposal methods through schools to educate people so that less recyclable and compostable materials are being sent to the dump. The spaces saved from our solutions of waste management and transportation help us solve our problem for saving nature through the city. The more space we have available to us we can use to bring back the nature in the city. A city can really benefit from having nature surrounding it because it will reduce stress and allow for people to embrace the beauty of nature. We can create a plan where we divide land for development and restoration of nature. These actions will help sustain our country.

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Urban Sprawl in 2035

Urban sprawl will be in issue in certain provinces in Canada such as Ontario, British Colombia and Alberta. Majority of population growth is occurring in these provinces as there is a large attraction towards these areas. Some of the attractions include many job opportunities, many commodities nearby and restrictions to overdevelopment because of the greenbelt. Although, sprawl will ruin the nature we are trying to sustain within the city. We would need to log, develop over wetlands and ruin habitats to accommodate our growing population. This is a loose-loose situation because we are at loss of nature and money spent paving wetland and farms. It takes $30 000 to pave a hectare of wetland and $12 000 to pave over a hectare of farmland. An outcome of sprawl in 2035 will be that homes will become much smaller and neighbor hoods will be located close to each other. This will result in people becoming more dependent of their cars as commodities will be located slightly farther away from each other. Dependency on cars leads to longer commute time as more people will be on the road, wastage of time as commuters will be sitting in traffic for longer and an increase in weight as people are spending more time sitting in cars rather than walking. Overall, urban sprawl is an issue with ripple effects and needs to be taken control of so that we Canada can have a bright future.

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Limiting Urban Sprawl in 2035

To limit urban sprawl in Ontario by 2035 we would need to take action today. Rather than people owning large backyards we can make small backyards and make more homes. We can then restore the nature in central areas so that it can be appreciated by many residents in Ontario. To become less dependent on cars residents can locate their home within a 30 minute walk of their work so that they can avoid using their car often. This would help reduce all the problems connected to being car dependent and make Canada a greater country in the near future. We promote using public transit by providing efficient and cheap transportation within the community. Also this transportation can be eco-friendly by making the buses, taxis and trains run on electric engines rather than oil engines. We can also limit the sewers and electrical lines that go farther out in rural areas so that people are forced to stay within the development lines of the city. Urban sprawl is issues which cannot be avoided, but can control so that it does not become a challenging problem to look upon.


Overall, Canada has a bright future in 2035 because of its attraction for immigrants, its different climates, its sustainable development and its control of urban sprawl. Canada will constantly work hard so that it will be the best country in the world because every country has flaws, but it is those countries who work to fix them that are the best ones globally.

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