Classifying the Colonies

Prerana Ramadurgum

The Colony of Jamestown

  • The Virginia Company of London (a joint-stock company) established this colony
  • This was the first permanent British settlement in North America
  • Jamestown was established in 1607
  • All the settlers were English males who were not the first sons
  • The settlers focused more on gold than food and shelter so malaria along with starvation wiped out most of the settlers
  • John Smith saved the colony by having them farm and build shelter
  • The "Starving Time" was the winter of 1609 after Smith left.
  • The Powhatans and the other surrounding Native American tribes fought three wars with the colonists before peace was established through the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas
  • The economy of Virginia depended on tobacco that was introduced by Rolfe
  • The House of Burgesses was the "government" of Virginia

The Colony of Maryland

  • The colony of Maryland was established by Lord Baltimore
  • in 1634, the first settlement was established at St. Mary's
  • This was a proprietary colony meaning that it was owned by a single individual rather than a joint-stock company
  • It was created as a haven for Catholics who were escaping persecution in England and in the other colonies
  • The 1649 Act of Toleration protected Catholics, however it outlawed all non-Christian religions
  • Lord Baltimore gave special privileges to his Catholic settlers, mostly land
  • Maryland exported tobacco like Virginia
  • Maryland sheltered more Roman Catholics than any other English-speaking colony
  • This colony was in the Chesapeake Bay Area
  • Protestants outnumbered Catholics as the majority

The Colony of Pennsylvania

  • Established in 1681 by William Penn
  • Penn was a Quaker which meant that he emphasized peace and tolerated everyone
  • Relations with Native Americans were very good until Scottish immigrants ruined it
  • Was liberal and even had a representative assembly
  • Freedom of worship was granted to all
  • This colony was very diverse since it attracted all kinds of people
  • There was no military
  • The Quakers began exporting grain and the population grew quickly, rivaled only by Virginia and Massachusetts
  • Quakers were against the enslavement of Africans
  • This colony was relatively wealthy since there was no State Church to use funds

Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by John Winthrop and John Endicott in1620
  • Winthrop was governor for about 15 years and became a prominent figure in the colony
  • Winthrop’s goal was to create the perfect Christian society, he wanted to make Boston “A city on a hill”
  • Formed by non-separatist puritans who could no longer stay in England due to persecution
  • The colony was orginally established from a charter but soon came under royal control
  • The three most important cities were Plymouth, Salem, and Boston. Boston quickly became one of the largest cities in New England
  • It had more favorable conditions than Jamestown and although the soil wasn't suited for agriculture, the colonists turned to mills, fish, and timber
  • Fishing and Manufacturing soon became the largest economic activities. The colonists would fish and use timber to build ships in order to make the colony a trading port
  • It had bad ties with England since King Charles I did not tolerate Puritans very well
  • Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were banished from the colony. Roger Williams was tolerant of other religions while the Puritans were not so he was seen as a threat to the Puritan state. Anne Hutchinson believed strongly in predestination and thought living a holy life did nothing to help, her radical ideas were also seen as threatening and she was banished.

The Colony of Georgia

  • Georgia was the last of thirteen colonies, it was established in 1733 more than a hundred years after Jamestown
  • Founded by James Oglethorpe
  • It was created to be a buffer state between the Carolinas and Florida. The Spanish were in Florida and they would start conflicts with the Carolinians
  • Was established by London philanthropists also as a social experiment but failed
  • The Methodist church was founded in Georgia by John Wesley
  • Plantations were established and later slaves were brought in to work in them
  • Georgia was the only colony to receive subsidies from England
  • It's main exports were wine and silk
  • It was a very diverse colony since people from the Caribbean would travel up to Georgia
  • It was a haven for debtors since prison conditions were improved by James Oglethorpe