Civil War Battles
By: Logan Harris
Dred Scott case
Dred Scott was a slave; His owner takes Scott with him to Illinois and Wisconsin to live. Four years later Scott and his master move back to Missouri, Scotts master died and Scott sues for his freedom. Scott argued he should be free on the grounds that he became free when entering a free state. Missouri court ruled against Scott; The case went to the US Supreme Court. March 6, 1857- Chief justice Roger Taney upheld the ruling against Scott, saying Scott had no right to sue because he was considered property.
A decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. The Proclamation freed enslaved African Americans only in states at war with the union. It did not address slavery in the border states. Short of a constitutional amendment however, Lincoln could not end slavery in the border states, nor did he want to risk losing their loyalty. The Proclamation, by its very existence, transformed the conflict from a war to preserve the union to a war of liberation.
Lee's desperate attempt to escape Grant's forces failed when Sheridan's cavalry got ahead of Lee's troops and blocked the road at Appomattox Courthouse. When his troops failed to breakthrough, Lee sadly observed, " There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and i would rather die die a thousand deaths."With his ragged and battered troops surrounded and outnumbered, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. Grant's generous terms of surrender guaranteed that the United States would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason.
Stephen Douglas wants part of Louisiana purchase divided into two territories- Kansas and Nebraska. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty- Problem is territories are above 36"/ 30" line. Douglas thinks move will give him southern support for possible presidential run - North views Douglas as a sell out. Bitter debate in Congress, but bill passes in 1854.