Cells

Tyla Howell

Plasma or Cell Membrane

  • Definition: The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment
  • Structure: Consists of both lipids and proteins. The phospholipid layer bilayer is the main barrier that keeps things stable.
  • Function: It separates the contents of the cell and it monitors what comes in and out the cell. The lipids help to give membranes their flexibility and the proteins monitor and maintain the cell's chemical climate.
  • Both animal & plant cells have cell membranes

Cell Wall

  • Definition: a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria
  • Structure: A cell wall is made of cellulose. Cellulose is a structural carbohydrate and is considered a complex sugar because it is used in both protection and structure.
  • Function: Its job is to protect and support the plant
  • It is a plant cell
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Cytoplasm

  • Definition: The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
  • Structure: Cytoplasm is made up of cytosol, organelles, & cytoplasmic inclusions.
  • Function: Cytoplasm is the site of many biochemical reactions that are vital and crucial for maintaining life. It's where the cell expands and growth of the cell takes place, and it provides a medium for the organelles to remain suspended.
  • It is a plant cell
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Nucleus

  • Definition: A dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material
  • Structure: The main structures are the nuclear envelope & isolates.
  • Function: To control gene expression and mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle.
  • It's both plant and animal
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Nuclear Membrane

  • Definition: The double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells
  • Structure: The nuclear lamina provides structure to the nucleus by attaching to the nuclear envelope and chromatin
  • Function: To act as a barrier that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  • It is both animal and plant

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Nucleolus

  • Definition: A small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase
  • Structure: It is composed of proteins and nucleic acids found in the nucleus
  • Function: Its main function is to rewrite ribosomal and combine it with proteins
  • It is a plant cell
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Centrioles

  • Definition: A minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in paris and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cel division
  • Structure: A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a special
  • Function: The centrioles are found in pairs and move towards the poles of the nucleus when it is time for cell division
  • It's both animal and plant cells
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Chromatin

  • Definition: The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed
  • Structure: Chromatin is organized into several levels, the nucleosome, histone core, histone octamer, & DNA
  • Function: The functions of chromatin are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control gene expression and DNA replication
  • It's a plant cell
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Ribosomes

  • Definition: A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells
  • Structure: It is composed of catalytic rRNAs and polypeptides
  • Function: They assemble amino acids to form specific proteins
  • It's both plant & animal cells
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Golgi Apparatus

  • Definition: A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport
  • Structure: The Golgi apparatus is a part of the cellular structure that assists in the modification and delivery of proteins and other macromolecules. Made up of flat membranes called cisternae
  • Function: The Golgi apparatus handles the macromolecules, processes and packages the macromolecules for use within the cell, and modifies proteins
  • It's both plant & animal
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Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Definition: A network of membranous tubules within cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane
  • Structure: An extensive membrane network of cisternae held together by the cytoskeleton
  • Function: The folding of protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles
  • It's both plant & animal cells
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Mitochondria

  • Definition: An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur
  • Structure: They are shaped like rods & are a double membrane bound organelle. The membranes are made up of phospholipids and proteins
  • Function: They produce energy, help cells maintain proper concentration, & help building certain parts of blood and hormones
  • It's both plant & animal cells
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Chloroplast

  • Definition: a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
  • Structure: The chloroplasts are vesicular and have a colorless center. Their size also varies from species to species
  • Function: To make food by the process of photosynthesis
  • It's a plant cell
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Lysosomes

  • Definition: An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
  • Structure: Lysosomes are surrounded by a membrane composed of phospholipids that separate the inside of the lysosomes from the membrane's external environment
  • Function: Lysosomes are the garbage disposals of the cell
  • It's both animal & plant cell
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Peroxisomes

  • Definition: A small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases
  • Structure: Small vesicles found around the cell
  • Function: Contain abundance of enzymes for detoxifying harmful substances and lipid metabolism
  • It's both plant & animal cell
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Vacuole

  • Definition: A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid
  • Structure: It's a membrane that surrounds a mass of fluid
  • Function: They are storage bubbles found in cells
  • It's both plant & animal
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Cytoskeleton

  • Definition: A microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence
  • Structure: The three main structural components are: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
  • Function: Helps cells with shape, support, and movement
  • It's both plant & animal cells
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