North Amarica


  • Constructed dams , ditches , & canals to trap rain from tops of mesa & channel to gardens on canyon floor.
  • Heart of civilization in Chaco Canyon was Pueblo Bonito where there was a massive complex of more than 1,000 people.
  • From Pueblo Bonito they built roads for trading networks.
  • Heavily influenced art & architecture of late groups such as Hopi & Zuni
  • Left perhaps from many droughts.

Adena & Hopewell

  • Lived in Ohio valley region around 700 BC
  • Produces squash , sunflowers, gourds, & barley.
  • Elaborate burial mounds made up of log structures coved by piles of Earth.


  • Arrived in Ohio valley around 300 BC.
  • Built mounds some were 40 feet high & 100 feet wide.
  • Artifacts found suggest extensive TRADE network.
  • Adena and Hopewell both referred to as "Mound Builders".


  • Arrived in Mississippi valley by 800 AD.
  • Had plants that used for many food & when added maize & beans had an increase.
  • More land resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people-largest was Cahokia.
  • Cahokia was a massive mound aprox 100 feet high base of more than 14 acres ( larger than Great Pyramid in Egypt).
  • Surrounding this massive mound were 120 smaller mounds.
  • (All these Mississippi civilization collapsed by the beginning of 1300's AD-but all influenced other Eastern Woodlands people).