- Constructed dams , ditches , & canals to trap rain from tops of mesa & channel to gardens on canyon floor.
- Heart of civilization in Chaco Canyon was Pueblo Bonito where there was a massive complex of more than 1,000 people.
- From Pueblo Bonito they built roads for trading networks.
- Heavily influenced art & architecture of late groups such as Hopi & Zuni
- Left perhaps from many droughts.
Adena & Hopewell
- Lived in Ohio valley region around 700 BC
- Produces squash , sunflowers, gourds, & barley.
- Elaborate burial mounds made up of log structures coved by piles of Earth.
- Arrived in Ohio valley around 300 BC.
- Built mounds some were 40 feet high & 100 feet wide.
- Artifacts found suggest extensive TRADE network.
- Adena and Hopewell both referred to as "Mound Builders".
- Arrived in Mississippi valley by 800 AD.
- Had plants that used for many food & when added maize & beans had an increase.
- More land resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people-largest was Cahokia.
- Cahokia was a massive mound aprox 100 feet high base of more than 14 acres ( larger than Great Pyramid in Egypt).
- Surrounding this massive mound were 120 smaller mounds.
- (All these Mississippi civilization collapsed by the beginning of 1300's AD-but all influenced other Eastern Woodlands people).