Middle Ages

By Jaeden Staedter

How the Black Death started.

The Black Death was the worst plague ever back in it's time. The Black Death started with a disease that infected and was carried by fleas. Soon enough, these fleas began housing themselves in the fur of rats. Since there was no source of water or food for the rats in their location, they soon started migrating to the cities. This was the beginning of a huge "slaughter" of the medieval world. People began dropping dead left and right from the horrible disease Like flies. Whole towns were wiped out in a matter of just days. This was not the end of the disease though. More rats also crept onto ships. Sailors were soon infected with the disease. When the sailors made port, the residents of that area had already heard about the disease and tried to ward them off. But it was too late. People had already made contact with the infected sailors.

The process repeated itself. By the year 1348, the disease had reached Italy, Spain, England, and France. But, it did not stop there either. In the following year, the plague spread to Austria, Holland, Hungary, Switzerland, and Germany. In 1350, people in Scandinavia and the Baltic countries began their struggle against the beast now known as The Black Death.

The food in the fresh state.

Food in the fresh state

Of all butchers' meat, veal was reckoned the best. In fact, calves intended for the tables of the upper classes were fed in a special manner: they were allowed for six months, or even for a year, nothing but milk, which made their flesh most tender and delicate. Contrary to the present taste, kid was more appreciated than lamb, which caused butchers to attach the tail of a kid to a lamb, so as to deceive the customer and sell him a less expensive meat at the higher price. Regulations, sometimes eccentric, but almost always rigidly enforced, to ensure a supply of meat of the best quality and in a healthy state. In England, butchers were only allowed to kill bulls after they had been baited with dogs, no doubt with the view of making the flesh more tender. To the many regulations affecting the interests of the public must be added that forbidding butchers to sell meat on days when abstinence from animal food was ordered by the Church. These regulations applied less to the vendors than to the consumers, who, by disobeying them, were liable to fine or imprisonment, or to severe corporal punishment by the whip or in the pillory.

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Torture if you were a bad person in the Middle Ages.

Middle Ages torture wouldn’t be complete without this device, which was used to extract information out of a person. The head crusher has an upper cap, under which a person’s head was placed, and a bottom bar, above which the chin was positioned. There’s a top screw that the tormentor could slowly turn in order to squeeze the skull of his prisoner.

Slowly but surely, the person was literally squashed to death. The teeth were usually the first to go, smashing and disintegrating into the jaw. The eyes followed as they were squashed from the eye sockets. Finally, the skull broke, and the contents of the head spilled onto the floor. For maximum enjoyment of the torturer, the metal skull cap could also be hit from time to time in the earlier stages of torture. This caused pain to vibrate throughout the human body.

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In the middle ages, transportation was significantly different. It was a lot more difficult to travel from one place to another. Transportation wasn't as advanced. Since they didn't have cars back then, people mainly traveled on foot, horses, mules, or carts. However, traveling by water was a lot more efficient since there weren't any roads yet either. Medieval boats were made of wood and most were powered by wind. Other than that, vehicles such as wagons were mainly used to haul heavy loads around.
In 400 A.D., muddy tracks replaced roads. This was, of course, a huge change in the transportation of this time. However, there were many many more changes to follow.
In the year 800 A.D., mapmakers in the middle east made maps taking the idea of the Earth being a sphere into consideration.
Then, In 1050, a new map of the world was made. What would be called an atlas in our time, was called the Mappa Mundi in the medieval times. It showed the parts of Asia and and Africa that Europeans knew of. It became the most commonly used map in Western Europe.
After that , 4 wheeled wagons were more common, instead of 2 wheeled carts in 1100.
Finally, in 1375, Europeans took in the ideas of latitude and longitude. This helped many people locate the exact points on a map of the world. Since then, many well-known people came and went, shaping the world of transportation into what we have today.
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Toys give us a possative view of the medieval childhood. Toy knights come from a rich harvest of archaeological finds, made in the mud banks of the river Thames in London during the last thirty years. Childhood requires special clothing, from infant wrappings to miniature versions of adult dresses.
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